Monday, November 21, 2011

The Carmelite Rule - Discussion - S. Teresa of Jesus - St. Teresa of Avila - The Book of the Foundations


The Carmelite Rule - Discussion -
St. Teresa of Avila - S. Teresa of Jesus 

    Discussion of  the Carmelite Rule 
           ( Sanctioned For Those 
              Of The Monastery 
              Of The Picture                        
                     At Alcala  )
                S. Teresa of Jesus 
      of the Order of our Lady of Carmel 



 The Carmelite Rule

  Adapted for the Nuns
  Regarding this version 
         and its Source:

      ◦  Derived from the Rule of St. Albert
      ◦  Later  with  "corrections and mitigations"
  Regarding the Time 
       of the adaption / writing
__________________________
Regarding the Background of 
     the Monastery at Alcala de Henares
  Maria of Jesus
  The  Foundation at Alcala de Henares
     of the reformed Carmelite Monastery
        Regarding the observance
            of the primitive Carmelite Rule at
         the Monastery at Alcala de Henares
     
         Problems in adapting 
            the primitive rule
         ◦ St. Teresa is asked to help 
            the convent at Alcala
    ■ The Carmelite Rule and Constitution
          of the Teresian Reform
        are brought to the Monastery 
          of Alcala de Henares in 1567.
    ■  The Authorization 
          of the  (Teresian) Constitution at
        the Monastery at Alcala de Henares:
    ■  Jurisdiction of the Monastery 
          at Alcala de Henares
    ■   Afterward
___________________________
    ■ St Teresa said of Maria of  Jesus
__________________________
  St. Teresa and the Carmelite Rule
     Envisioning the primitive Rule
          as adapted for the Nuns
     Authorization of the
        Reformed Monasteries
         and Constitution
      Observing the Constitution
    ■ Promulgating the Reformed Carmelite 
         Way of   Life 
    ■ St. Teresa's Diligence and Zeal
             for the Constitutions


  Regarding this writing,
       'The Carmelite Rule',
                  
      ( 'The Rule of the Nuns 
         sanctioned for those 
              of the Monastery of the Picture    
              at alcala') "
The Introduction of
     'The Book of the Foundations',
 which includes this writing, states:


  Adapted for the Nuns from

     "the rule as sanctioned 
        by  (Pope) Innocent IV"
       "Given at Lyons
        in the year of our Lord" 1247.


   "The Carmelite Rule 
       is translated and
       placed in this volume
      as it is in the edition of Don Vicente, 
    for the purpose of throwing light 
       on the Constitutions of the Saint
    The Rule was drawn up in the beginning 
       for friars, 
       not for nuns, 
   ...an adaptation of the Rule 
          of the friars 
    to the condition of nuns"
                           [ Foundations: Introduction] 



  Regarding this Version 
        and its Source:
    "Don Vicente has not been able to find 
      the original MS. of the Saint's constitutions,
     and has therefore printed those 
       of the monastery of Alcala
     about the genuineness 
       of which there can be no reasonable doubt"
              [ Foundations: Introduction] 
    
    "the Rule 
       printed in this volume, 
       as it was taken from the book 
          which Don Vicente had 
      from the monastery of
          the venerable Maria of Jesus
          in Alcala de Henares
      is an adaptation of the Rule 
          of the friars 
      to the condition of nuns"
    "The Constitutions
           printed in this volume 
      were obtained by Don Vicente de la Fuente 
            from the Monastery of the Picture 
            in Alcala de Henares"
                   [ Foundations: Introduction] 
    "The compiler of it 
       changed the word ' friars ' into ' nuns,' 
                and, 
       making the necessary changes 
               in the text, 
       fashioned the rule 
         to the use of the Carmelite nuns
     The Preface, however, 
        has not been changed, 
           and
     the Rule is addressed still 
        to Brocardo and the friars, 
    while the first paragraph 
        speaks of nuns. 
     It is probably an oversight 
        - that Brocardo is mentioned again in
             and 
        - that the paragraph remains unchanged, 
             the words ' office of prior ' 
          not being altered into 
             ' office of prioress.'  "
            (as in  paragraph #15 )
                     [ Foundations: Introduction] 
    ◦  Derived from the Rule of St. Albert
    
        "The primitive rule 
            given by Albert, 
               patriarch of Jerusalem...
            confirmed by Honorius III 
               in the year 1226..."
                  [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
                        Foot Note # 1 ]
                       "The Rule of the Nuns 
                         sanctioned for those 
                         of the Monastery  of the Picture
                         at alcala" ] 

  ◦  Later  with  "corrections and mitigations"
        "Two friars of the order...
        were instructed to beg Innocent IV
         in 1247,
         to make certain 
             corrections and mitigations 
          of the rule. 
         The Pope commissioned 
            Hugh of S. Cher, 
            Cardinal of Santa Sabina 
               and 
            the Bishop of  Tortosa, 
            both Dominicans, 
         to make the corrections required, 
            as may be seen 
            in his letters of confirmation. 
                 [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
                    Foot Note # 1
                  
       "the rule
         as sanctioned by Innocent IV"
       "Given at Lyons
          in the year of our Lord 1248, 
          in the fifth year 
            of the pontificate 
            of Innocent IV, Pope, 
         on the first day of September.       
            [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
              Foot Note # 2 ]
           

      "correspond to 1247 not 1248  
            [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
              Foot Note # 28 ]
          
  
   ◦ Note: The rule was further mitigated 
                  at the time of  Pope Eugenia IV 
                  in  1432
         In 1432 Eugenius IV 
            mitigated the rule again, 
         and the rule as explained by him 
            was in force 
        when S. Teresa made her profession 
           in the monastery of the Incarnation. 
           [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
             Foot Note # 1
            "The Rule of the Nuns 
              sanctioned for those 
              of the Monastery  of the Picture
              at alcala" ] 




  Regarding the Time 
       of the adaption / writing
      According to this version of 
           'The Book, of the Foundations':
        the date of the adaption
              by St. Teresa 
                may be in the early part of the 1560's
              since  the Monastery of 
                   St. Joseph at Avila  
                was governed by them.
             This convent was founded in 1562.
       There were problems 
              in assigning an exact date 
              to the adaption and writing due to:
           The original text 
                   of the Rule and Constitutions 
               which were adapted for the Nuns
                   had not been located:
               "Don Vicente has not been able 
                  to find the original MS. 
                     of the Saint's constitutions"
                       [ Foundations: Introduction] 
               Therefore, the Alcala de Henares version
                    was used
                (which St. Teresa  provided 
                     to that convent in 1567)
            Later commissions, editions, 
                  and the chapter of Alcala of 1581
                  omitted St. Teresa's name 
                   and other historical data
                   regarding the earliest adaptions.
                       "The constitutions of the nuns 
                           had been already drawn up
                                 by S. Teresa, 
                          by authority given her 
                          by the Sovereign Pontiff, Pius IV, 
                             who had approved of them 
                             as did also the General."
                        "She conceals the fact
                          that she had written them herself, 
                          and says most truly  that
                           the later monasteries received them
                             as the constitutions of the general."
                             [ Foundations: Chapter 23:  
                                Foot note # 14]
        
           The Monastery of St. Joseph in Avila 
                  was initially under the jurisdiction 
                     of the Bishop of Avila, 
                     not the Carmelite Order.
                 So the date of authorization 
                     by the Carmelite General 
                 would not be related to the actual writing.
                       "The General,   also, 
                            approved of them, 
                              (the Constitutions) 
                                 and 
                            ordered them to be allowed 
                                 in subsequent foundations 
                        for he had no jurisdiction then 
                     over that of S. Joseph's at Avila 
                        which was subject to 
                           the Bishop of the diocese, 
                           Don Alvaro de Mendoza.  
                                  [ Foundations: Introduction] 
                  "1577
                         July. 
                          Goes from Toledo to Avila 
                             to arrange for the transference 
                                     of St.Joseph's (Monastery)
                            from the jurisdiction of the Ordinary 
                            to that of the Carmelite Order.
                            [Complete Works of 
                              St. Teresa of Avila  Volume 1
                             'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                              Transl by Edgar Allison Peers]

    ▪ While the editor  provides references to 1568,
         
            "The Constitutions...
              are said to have been given 
           by the General of the order in 1568"
                  [ Foundations: Introduction] 
            "1568. The General approves 
              the Constitutions of the nuns.
                            [ Foundation: Introduction
                               'Annals of the Saint's Life' ]
   ▪  the adapted constitution was already
           in effect in the foundations 
        at Avila, Medina del Campo, and Alcala.
           
       
        The editor continued:

        " but that ( the dating of 1968) 
            is clearly not true in the letter. 
            ◦ In the first place 
               - the Saint in 1567 
                  speaks of the constitutions 
                  as being then in force in Avila, 
                              and
           ◦  in the second place 
               - the General of Carmel  had no jurisdiction 
                     over the monastery 
                  of the venerable Maria of Jesus 
                     in Alcala de Henares. 
                     S. Teresa 
                      - went in November 1567 
                           to that monastery 
                                (Alcala de Henares)
                                   and 
                       - gave it her own constitutions,  
                           which, no doubt, 
                         she had shown to the General 
                          when he visited her in Avila in April 
                              of that year."       (1567)
                                    [ Foundations: Introduction] 
                     
                        "1567  (April 27) 
                           Carmelite General, P. Rubeo  
                             visits St.Teresa, 
                             authorizing her to found 
                             further convents of the Reform...".
                            [ Complete Works 
                                  St. Teresa of Avila   
                               Volume 1
                             'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                             Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
                      
                           "The two first patents 
                                granted by the
                                  (Carmelite General Fr. Rubeo) 
                                to S. Teresa 
                             bear the dates 
                                Avila,  27th April 1567
                                       and 
                                Madrid l0th (or 16th) May.  
                           These include authorization 
                               "to found convents of nuns..."        
                          "This same patent mentions the 
                            'Primitive rule 
                          and our Constitutions,' 
                       as the rule of life 
                          of the new convents
                            During his sojourn in Spain 
                            he made certain regulations 
                                which he refers to 
                            in the Constitutions published 
                          in 1568"        
                                   [Foundations: Ch 2:
                                     Foot Note #5 ]
The editor continues to assert:
     "They must have been written 
          soon after she began to live 
               in her new house in Avila
      for the nuns in Avila 
          were governed by them
       as we learn from her 
           in her account of the foundation 
               of her second monastery, 
            which was Medina del Campo."
                           [ Foundations: Introduction] 
                        Regarding the nuns 
                           of the foundation 
                           of Medina del Campo,
                         founded 15 August, 1567,
                        St. Teresa stated 
                        that they served the Lord
                        "after the manner observed 
                            in S. Joseph's of Avila, 
                               (founded    8/24/1562 ) 
                         for the rule and constitutions 
                            in both places 
                         were the same,
                             [Foundations: Ch.3: #17 ]
                        "She gave them
                         ( Maria of Jesus and the Monastery 
                              at Alcala de Henares  Nov 1567)
                         the constitutions 
                            which she had drawn up 
                         for her houses in Avila and Medina."
                             [Foundations: Ch.3: 
                                 Foot Note #23  ]
  "It seems, then, 
    that...the constitutions of the nuns
   (was) written by her 
      during her rest in her monastery 
     — in 'the most tranquil years of my life,' 
   as she says in the first chapter 
     of the Foundations."
          [Foundations: Introduction]
           "I remained five years 
                after its foundation 
                 in the house of S. Joseph, Avila, 
              and I believe, 
                 so far as I can see at present,
              that they were the most tranquil years
                 of my life"
                  [ Foundations: Ch 1: #1]
           "1562-7
             At St. Joseph's, Ávila 
               ("The most restful years of my life"
              August 24. 
                  Foundation of Convent 
                  of St. Joseph, Ávila  .
                  [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila   
                    Volume 1
                     'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                     Transl by Edgar Allison Peers ]



Regarding the Background of 
     the Monastery at Alcala de Henares


  Maria of Jesus
  ◦ "a widow  

  ◦ became a novice in the
      Carmelite monastery in Granada,  
           ( of the mitigated rule)
      and during her novitiate had revelations,
           ...about a reform of the Order. 

  ◦ ...she then referred them 
              to Fr. Gaspar de Salazar, 
         He approved of them

  ◦ Maria left the novitiate, 
         and went to Rome..."
                [ Life: Chapter 35:  Foot note # 511]
    "...went to Rome to obtain 
         the necessary faculties"
                 [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 1]
     "Pope Pius IV heard her prayer, 
             and, 
       said to her, 
       'Woman of strong courage, 
            let it be as thou wilt.'

       She returned to Granada, 
       but both the Carmelites and the city 
             refused her permission 
           to found her house there.
                [ Life: Chapter 35:  Foot note # 511]



  The  Foundation at Alcala de Henares
     of the reformed Carmelite Monastery
 ◦ "It is called 
       the Monastery of the Picture 
        of the Immaculate Conception"
     
        [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
             Foot Note # 2
           "The Rule of the Nuns 
              sanctioned for those 
              of the Monastery  of the Picture                        
              at alcala" ] 
      
 ◦ "Dona Leonor de Mascareñas 
     gave (Maria  of  Jesus)  a house 
         in Alcala de Henares
     of which she took possession 
           Sept. 11, 1562
 ◦ but the house was formally constituted 
          July 23, 1563
    
 ◦ and subjected to the Bishop ten days after..." 
          [ Life: Chapter 35:  Foot note # 511]
   Regarding the observance
         of the primitive Carmelite Rule  
      at the Monastery at Alcala de Henares
      St. Teresa wrote:
           "The other house, 
           which the holy woman...
                [ Maria of Jesus ]
                laboured to establish, 
            has been also blessed of our Lord, 
                    and 
            is founded in Alcala: 

            ...I know that all duties of religion 
                  are observed in it, 
            according to our primitive rule. 
                [Life: Ch. 36: #29 ] 
      ◦ Problems in adapting the primitive rule
  
         Maria of Jesus was inspired to found 
             a reformed  Carmelite convent.
         But her intention to follow
            the primitive Carmelite Rule
         resulted in the adoption 
            of  harsh mortification practices.
       "Maria de Jesus... went to such lengths 
          in the austerities 
        which she imposed ...in her convent..."
                   [ Life: Ch.36: Foot Note #327
                   Translated by Peers ]
        "Maria of Jesus had founded her house 
            in Alcala de Henares; 
        but the austerities practised in it, 
        and the absence of the religious mitigations 
           which long experience had introduced, 
        were too much for the fervent nuns 
           there assembled."
                 [ Life: Ch.36: Foot note #559"
                    Translated by D. Lewis ]


          ______________________
 ◦ St. Teresa is asked to help 
               the convent at Alcala
           "Maria of Jesus begged 
                Dona Leonor de Mascarenas
            to persuade St. Teresa 
                to come to Alcala. 
           The Saint went to the monastery, 
           and was received there with joy, 
           and even entreated to take the house 
                under her own government" 
                    [ Life: Ch.36: Foot note #559"
                      Translated by D. Lewis ]
         
          
           "She left Madrid 
                 20th November 1567
            with Dona Maria de Mendoza 
                 who had been asked 
                        by Dona Leonor 
             to take her to Alcala de Henares
             Having arrived there, 
             she was received 
                 by the venerable Maria of Jesus 
                 and her nuns 
             as if she had been 
                 their foundress and superior. 
            S. Teresa found the convent 
                 on the verge of ruin, 
            as the foundress 
                with more zeal than discretion 
            had insisted on austerities 
                 that were 
                 not only above human nature 
                 but even contrary to reason. 
                     [ Foundations:  Ch 3:  
                       Foot Note # 23 ] 
            "1567
            August 15
                   Foundation of Convent
                           at Medina del Campo... 
            November....
                    goes to Alcala de Henares
                    consults P. Banez 
                    and stays till February 1568.
                      [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila   
                        Volume 1
                         'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                        Transl by Edgar Allison Peers ]
            "1567
             (November 25th) 
                   She left Madrid, 25th November
                   and went to Alcala de Henares 
                       for the purpose of visiting and settling
                   the monastery of the venerable 
                        Maria of Jesus. 
                   She remains two months in Alcala
                      [ Foundation: Introduction
                         Annals of saints life ]




The Carmelite Rule and Constitution
        of the Teresian Reform
     are brought to the Monastery 
          of Alcala de Henares in 1567.
◦  In 1567,  St. Teresa is asked to visit
    the monastery at Alcala
    to instruct and assist in the prudent modulation
     of its governance, 
    particularly in the area of  austerities.
      
       "in 1567 St. Teresa had to visit it 
           in order to put things straight, 
        which she did by giving the nuns 
            the same Constitution 
             as that of St. Joseph's."
                [ Life: Ch.36: Foot Note #327
                   Translated by Peers ]
        "The keys of the house were given to her, 
         and the whole community offered itself to her 
             to be guided and instructed by her. 
        She gave them the constitutions 
            which she had drawn up for her houses 
        in Avila and Medina."
                   [ Foundations:  Ch 3:  
                      Foot Note # 23 ] 
        "Perhaps the venerable Maria of Jesus 
            adopted the constitutions in 1567, 
            when the Saint was there."
                    [ Foundations: Introduction] 


             _____________________
  The Authorization 
             of the  (Teresian) Constitution
      at the Monastery at Alcala de Henares:
        "The Constitutions of that monastery 
             were approved of 
         by the Archduke Albert, 
             Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo, 
          and ordered by him to be observed 
             under the penalties imposed by them, 
             being, as he says, 
            'the very constitutions 
             which the Mother Teresa of Jesus, 
                 founder of the said Order 
                      of Barefooted Carmelites, 
             made in her lifetime 
                 for the government of the same.'  "
                    [ Foundations: Introduction] 
             ___________________
Jurisdiction of the Monastery 
        at Alcala de Henares
       "This Alcala convent, however, 
           never came under 
       the jurisdiction of the (Carmelite) Order..."  
                  [ Life: Ch.36: Foot note #327
                   Translated by Peers ]
       "The Saint  (St. Teresa) 
            wished the community 
         to place itself 
             under the jurisdiction 
                 of the (Carmelite) Order, 
         as she had placed her foundation in Medina; 
         but the nuns and the Bishop disliked the change, 
         and Fray Dominic Banez, 
               at that moment in Alcala, 
         advised her not to press the matter 
                 (Reforma, bk. 11. ch. x. ). 
                  [ Foundations:  Ch 3:  Foot Note # 23 ] 
         _________________________

  Afterward
       ◦  (1585)  Continuation of 
            Teresian reform Constitution   
           F. Ribera, S. J., 
            - visited the monastery of Maria of Jesus 
                      in 1585
                         and 
            - found the constitutions and directions 
                      of S. Teresa 
               fervently observed therein (i. 16). 
                       [ Foundations:  Ch 3:  
                          Foot Note # 23 ] 
      ◦  1599  
          "The monastery...founded in the same city 
              (by)  the nuns of S. Teresa in 1599...
          is called the Monastery 
              of Corpus Christi"           
                [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: 
                     Foot Note # 2    
             "The Rule of the Nuns 
              sanctioned for those 
              of the Monastery  of the Picture                        
              at alcala" ] 
       "...the (Carmelite) order 
        which in 1599 founded a convent 
             of its own there, 
          known as Corpus Christi"
                  [ Life: Ch.36: Foot note #327
                   Translated by Peers ]


St Teresa said of Maria of  Jesus:
    
       "When I was staying with this lady, 
              ( Dona Luisa de la Cerda 
                 1562—January-July
         whose house I remained 
             more than six months, 
       our Lord ordained 
       that a holy woman of our Order
            ...should hear of me...
   
      Our Lord had moved her 
           in the same year, and 
           in the same month of the year, 
      that He had moved me, 
           to found another monastery 
          of the Order
     and as He had given her this desire
     she...went to Rome to obtain 
         the necessary faculties. 
      ...a woman of great penance and prayer, 
      one to whom our Lord 
               gave many graces; and 
      Her progress 
        in the service of our Lord 
      was so much greater than mine...
     
      She showed me Briefs 
          she brought from Rome
      and during the fortnight 
          she remained with me 
      we laid our plan for the founding 
           of these monasteries."
                [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 1]
      "This holy woman, 
            taught of our Lord, 
        perfectly understood 
           -- though she could not read --
       what I was ignorant of"
               [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 2]
   
       "and God never fails those 
             who serve Him
       In short, 
         I was weak in faith; 
          but not so this servant of God.
                  [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 3]
                      "1562
                   January-July
                   Stays with Doña Luisa de la Cerda 
                        at Toledo.       
                       [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila   
                          Volume 1
                         'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                         Transl by Edgar Allison Peers ]



Convent Avila Alcala de Henares
Founder St Teresa Venerable
Maria of Jesus
Authorized
by Rome
July 1562
(dated 2/7/1562
prior to summer
     1562
Brief of Pope Pius IV Pope Pius IV

Took possession
of building
09/11/1562
Founded  08/24/1562 07/23/1563
Jurisdiction Bishop of Avila
Don Alvaro
 de Mendosa;
Later under Carmel
Bishop of
Alcala de Henares
Monastery of St. Joseph The Picture of the
Immaculate
Conception
Observance of the
Primitive Rule
circa 1563
Adaption of the
primitive rule
for Nuns
circa 1562 circa 1567


  St. Teresa and the Carmelite Rule


Envisioning the primitive Rule
          as adapted for the Nuns
      "Until I spoke to her, 
          (Maria of  Jesus) 
       I never knew 
          that our rule, 
                before it was mitigated, 
           required of us 
          that we should possess nothing"  
            [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 2]
      "The sixth chapter of the rule is: 
       ' Nullus fratrum sibi aliquid proprium, 
         esse dicat, 
         sed sint vobis omnia communia."
         [ Life: Chapter 35:  
                Foot Note # 512]
      "7. No sister shall have anything of her own, 
         but everything shall be in common"
       [ Foundations: The Carmelite Rule: #7  
         "The Rule of the Nuns 
              sanctioned for those 
              of the Monastery  of the Picture                        
              at alcala" ] 
         (It is the 7th rule in this version
           which was adapted for the Nuns]
       "This holy woman, 
           taught of our Lord, 
        perfectly understood 
           -- though she could not read --
       what I was ignorant of, 
       notwithstanding my having read
            the Constitutions  so often; 
       and when she told me of it, 
           I thought it right"
                 [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 2]
        "The Constitutions 
            which the Saint read 
            in the Monastery of the Incarnation 
          must have been the Constitutions 
            grounded on the Mitigated Rule 
          which was sanctioned by Eugenius IV" 
                    [ Life: Chapter 35:  
                      Foot Note # 514]
  
         "it would have been my great joy 
            to think that I was observing 
          the counsels of Christ our Lord
          for His Majesty had already given me 
           great longings for poverty
                  [ Life: Chapter 35:  # 2]





  Authorization of her
        Reformed Monasteries
         and Constitution
      "1562 
        July. 
          Brief  (of Pope Pius IV ) (dated February 7) 
               authorizing 
               the foundation of St. Joseph's
          received from Rome...
          The Bishop is persuaded 
                  by St. Peter of Alcantara 
              to sanction the foundation.

         August 24
          Foundation of Convent 
           of St. Joseph, Avila"  
                 [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila   
                   Volume 1
                    'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                    Transl by Edgar Allison Peers ]
      "The constitutions of the nuns 
               had been already drawn up
                    by S. Teresa, 
               by authority given her 
               by the Sovereign Pontiff, Pius IV, 
                    who had approved of them 
                     as did also the General."
                             [ Foundations: Chapter 23:  
                                Foot note # 14]

     "1567  (April 27) 
        Carmelite General, P. Rubeo (Rossi)
          visits St.Teresa, 
          authorizing her to found 
             further convents of the Reform...", 
                    [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila   
                       Volume 1
                      'An outline of the Life of St. Teresa' 
                      Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
      "The two first patents 
             granted by him to S. Teresa 
        bear the dates 
            Avila,  27th April 1567, 
                      and 
           Madrid 10th (or 16th) May.   1567
       The former empowers S. Teresa 
             to found convents of nuns 
       anywhere throughout 
             the kingdom of Castille,

       ...under the immediate jurisdiction 
            of the General and commissioners" 

      "They were to conform themselves 
          to that of  S. Joseph at Avila 
        with regard to 
         - the observance of the primitive rule
         - the customs, and 
         - the habit worn by the nuns. 
      ...The second faculty explains 
        that the term ' kingdom of Castille ' 
         refers both to Old and New Castille,  
         while Andalucia is explicitly excluded."
                 [Foundations: Ch 2:
                    Foot Note #5 ]

       "This same patent mentions the 
        'Primitive rule and our Constitutions,' 
         as the rule of life 
        of the new convents
        During his sojourn in Spain 
         he made certain regulations 
           which he refers to 
         in the Constitutions 
             published in 1568 
        ...the words used 
        in the patent appear to allude 
           to special constitutions, 
        in accordance with the Primitive rule. 
        ...
       It therefore seems more probable 
         (  at least to the present writer, 
            for others are of a different opinion  ) 
       that he had in view 
       the special constitutions 
            drawn up by S. Teresa 
                   with the authority of Pius IV, 
                         and 
              approved by Rubeo
        so that he was well entitled 
            to call them ' our Constitutions.'  "
                  [Foundations: Ch 2:
                    Foot Note #5 ]

    "Rubeo did not content himself 
        with granting the Saint powers 
      to found these two convents
         for he also drew up, 
      probably with her assistance
         special constitutions for them. 
     These two documents which are 
          of the highest importance 
      - are fully discussed 
            in the Introduction and 
     - are printed for the first time 
          in the Appendix No. 1 and 2. "
        (of the Book of the Foundations)
            [Foundations: Ch 2:
              Foot Note #6 ]


Observing the Constitution
    "We keep the rule 
         of our Lady of Carmel, 

    • not the rule of the Mitigation,
      but as it was 
           settled by Fr. Hugo
                Cardinal of Santa Sabina, and 
          given in the year 1248, 
                in the fifth year of the pontificate 
                of Innocent IV., Pope."
                    [ Life: Ch. 36: #27 ]
   "And now, 
    though the rule be somewhat severe,  
    -- for we 
      ◊ never eat flesh
                    except in cases of necessity, 
      ◊ fast eight months in the year, and 
      ◊ practise some other austerities besides 
           according to the primitive rule, [558] --
    yet the sisters think it light on many points,
       and so they have other observances, 
    which we have thought necessary 
       for the more perfect keeping of it. 
    And I trust in our Lord 
       that what we have begun 
    will prosper more and more, 
       according to the promise of His Majesty.
              [ Life: Ch. 36: #28 ]

 "Jejunium singulis diebus, exceptis Dominicis, 
   observetis a Festo Exaltationis Sanctae Crucis 
  usque ad diem Dominicae Resurrectionis, 
   nisi infirmitas vel debilitas corporis, 
   aut alia justa causa, jejunium solvi suadeat; 
 quia necessitas non habet legem. 

 Ab esu carnium abstineatis, 
  nisi pro infirmitatis aut debilitatis 
   remedio sint sumantur." 
 That is the tenth section of the rule."
         [ Life: Ch. 36: Foot Note #558 ]
          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

       Blogger's rough translation:
 Observing daily fasting, except Sundays,   
  from the feast of the Exaltation 
       of the Holy Cross  
  to the day of the Resurrection
       of the Lord (Easter Sunday)
    excluding those 
       who are sick or weakened of body 
   or  for any just cause the fast is broken;
 because necessity does not have law.

 Abstain from all meat, 
   excluding those  sick or weakened, 
    which are taken as a remedy.



  Promulgating the Reformed Carmelite 
         Way of Life 
     "Fray John of the Cross had the means 
         of learning our way of life, 
       so that he might clearly 
          understand everything, 
      - both the mortifications we practise 
                and 
     - the sisterly affection 
        with which we treat one another, 
               and 
     - how we all come to recreation together, 
         which is so modestly carried on 
          that it 
           ◦ helps us to discover 
              the shortcomings of the sisters, 
                   and 
           ◦ is some slight comfort to ourselves, 
                 enabling us to endure
               the severity of the rule

        ...I only showed him the way 
          in which the sisters live. 
              [ Foundations: Chapter 13: #5 ]
       "She was directed by our Lord 
           on one occasion 
        to take the rule and constitutions with her,
                 ( See Foundations: Ch.17: #3)   
                           [ Foundations: Introduction] 

         "When (Mariano of S. Benedict
              had recounted to me 
                  his way of life 
           I showed him the primitive rule 
                  of the order"
            [ Foundations: Chapter 17:   # 8]
           "S. Teresa gave a copy of the rule 
                    to Mariano
              who took it with him 
                    to his lodging 
           where he read it aloud, 
           and explained it to Juan de la Miseria
           his companion. 
        Before he had gone through it 
           he cried out, 
        'Brother John, 
         we have found 
              what we are seeking for; 
         that is the rule we should keep.' 
                [ Foundations: Chapter 17:  
                        Foot note # 11]

   The general,
       by letters dated Barcelona, 
         14th August 1567, 
   authorized the provincial,
      Fray Alonso Gonzalez 
         and the ex-provincial 
      Fray Angel de Salazar
         then prior of Avila, 
   jointly to accept two houses of friars, 
      in which the primitive rule 
   was to be observed. 
              [ Foundations: Chapter 13:  
                 Foot note: #8 ]
 "Our Lord sent the father-master 
   Fray Jerome of the Mother of God
        to our relief, 
   for he was made commissary apostolic    
       and had to rule and govern 
   both the friars and the nuns 
       of the barefooted Carmelites. 
  He made the constitutions of the friars     
     we had ours already 
  from the most reverend our father-general, 
    and thus it was
           that he made none for us
           only for them,
   in virtue of his apostolic authority 
          and of the good gifts, 
               as I said before, 
         which our Lord had given him." 
                [ Foundations: Chapter 23:  #13]

  The nuncio, Monsignor Ormaneto, 
       in 1575 
   made Fray Jerome, 
      superior of the Carmelites in Spain, 
   and accordingly in his visitation 
     in that year the constitutions were made 
  which Fray Jerome 
     gave to the friars to observe
   The constitutions of the nuns 
      had been already drawn up
         by S. Teresa
     by authority given her 
         by the Sovereign Pontiff, Pius IV, 
     who had approved of them 
         as did also the General. 
     She conceals the fact
       that she had written them herself, 
     and says most truly 
       that the later monasteries received them
         as the constitutions of the general." 
               [ Foundations: Chapter 23:  
                        Foot note # 14]


St. Teresa's Diligence and Zeal
             for the Constitutions
    "The Constitutions are frequently referred to
        by the Saint 
          in the Book of the Foundations      
                   and 
          in her letters; 
        and even on her deathbed 
        she begs her children 
               to observe them carefully."
                    [ Foundations: Introduction] 
     "Importance of keeping
            the Constitutions.  

          What the superior has to insist on 
            is the keeping of the constitutions: 
            and 
          wherever there shall be a prioress 
            who...shall take so great a liberty 
                as to break the constitutions, 
                  ...thinking  the observance of them 
                  ...to be a matter of little moment, 
          let it be clearly understood 
            - she is doing the community 
                  a grievous wrong, and 
            - time will show it, 
    
       This is the reason 
          why monasteries, and even orders 
              are so fallen in some places" 
              [ Foundations:
                 "The Visitation of the Nunneries" #20 ]
        "the chief reason 
          why (the prioresses)  are in office is
               - that they are to see
                  that the rules and constitutions 
                    -- are kept
                         -- not to take away from them 
                         -- nor to add to them..."                         
                        [ Visitation of the Nunneries: #21 ]

       "that the nuns 
         who shall come after us 
           may know how great 
            are their obligations 
         to make progress in perfection

         when they find
         that (which is) made easy to them 
             has cost so much to us 
        who are now alive."
            [ Foundation: Ch. 28: #4 ]
      "All the trouble we had to go through, 
          as it seems to me, 
      will have been endured to good purpose."
       [ Life: Ch. 36: #27 ]
   "Danger of slight relaxation.
    let those 
          who are to come after us, 
          who will find everything easy, 
       for the love of our Lord
   never allow any observance
           tending to perfection 
     to fall into disuse. 
   Let them never give men 
      occasion to say of them 
   what is said of some orders, 
     'Their beginning was praiseworthy '
           — and we are beginning now — 
   but let them strive to go on 
    from good to better. 
  Let them consider 
    that the devil, 
          by means of very slight relaxations, 
    makes an opening 
       by which very great ones 
       may creep in
  Let it never happen to them 
     to say, 
       'This is nothing — these are extremes.' 
       O my daughters, 
             everything is important 
       if it does not help us onwards. 
   I beseech you 
        for the love of our Lord 
   to keep in mind 
       -  how soon everything passes away, 
                and 
       - how good our Lord has been to us 
            in bringing us to the Order, 
                and 
       - how severely she shall be punished 
          who shall be the first 
           to be lax in anything
  Do you direct your eyes 
     to the race of those holy prophets 
  from whom we are descended 
      — what saints we have in heaven 
               who wore this habit ! 
  Let us dare 
      with a holy boldness, 
  by the grace of God, 
       to be ourselves like unto them. 
            [ Life: Ch. 29: #26 ]




           End of  the Discussion of
              the Carmelite Rule 
                S. Teresa of Jesus 
    of the Order of our Lady of Carmel     

No comments:

Post a Comment