Wednesday, November 30, 2011

APPENDIX II - Rule and Constitutions for the Discalced Friars - The Book of the Foundations


           APPENDIX II 
   Rule and Constitutions 
   for the Discalced Friars 
     of the Order of our Lady 
     of Mount Carmel, 
     of the Primitive Rule unrelaxed,
   observed 
      in this kingdom of Castille, 
   given by our Most Reverend Father, 
      Fray John Baptist Rubeo 
            of Ravenna, 
      General of the said order. 
[ Blog Note: See Foot Note #6 ]


THE ORDER TO BE OBSERVED 
    IN SPIRITUALS 
1
Let matins always be said at midnight 
 and be followed 
    by an hour's mental prayer, 
after which the bell-ringer 
       of the preceding week 
   shall give the sign to retire. 
In summer 
    the friars shall rise at five, 
    and continue in prayer till six; 
in winter 
     at six, 
     and continue in prayer till seven. 
After meditation,
    Prime and Terce shall be recited. 
In summer they ring for mass at eight, 
  and all the year 
      Sext shall be said before mass ; 
in winter they ring at nine, 
   and after mass they say None, 
but in summer 
   None shall be said at one o'clock. 
2
Every day high mass shall be sung 
   at which all the religious 
      shall officiate in turn; 
the Hours shall be said in monotone, 
the voices even, 
   except on Sundays and feasts.
Let everyone be careful 
   never to be absent from choir 
       for light cause; 
when the Hours have been said 
   let them go at once to their work. 
ON COMMUNION 
3
Let the priests go to confession 
   te?' in hebdomada ad minus            
       (Blog Note: in a week at least)
and the brothers 
        who are not priests 
    shall go to confession and communion 
      on all Sundays and feasts of our Lord 
                 and 
       on feasts of our Lady and 
       of the saints of  the Order, 
    according to the advice 
         of their spiritual father. 
The brothers, priests,
    as well as those as are not priests, 
  shall prepare themselves for Communion,   
and 
afterwards shall remain 
      at least a quarter of an hour 
   giving thanks to the Lord 
      pro beneficio suscepto et 
      pro conservatione gratiarum. 
4. 
Shortly before dinner,
    signal shall be made 
for the examination of conscience, 
   touching what they have been doing 
       that day, 
   and 
   the gravest fault they may discover,
     let them 
          try to correct, and 
          say one Pater Noster 
              to obtain grace from God to that end.
 This examination shall be held 
     in the refectory or 
     in the oratory 
   after the dinner bell has been rung. 
5
At two o'clock 
    vespers are to be said 
  all the year round, 
    unless it be Lent 
      when they are to be said at eleven: 
    at the end of vespers, 
    when said at two o'clock, 
        let there be spiritual reading 
            for an hour; 
    and 
    when vespers are said at eleven,
         the spiritual reading is to be 
         at the aforesaid hour; 
    that time, however, 
         may be devoted to prayer 
    according to each one's devotion.
6
Compline,
   in summer, 
        is to be said at six o'clock, 
   in winter 
         at five. 
At eight, 
    both in summer and winter 
let the signal be given for silence, 
    which must be kept strictly
 till after Prime of the following day; 
great care must be bestowed on this point, 
and 
no one may enter the cell of another 
    at any time; 
at all other times 
  no brother may speak to another 
        without leave, 
  except those who are in office, 
         and 
  then only when necessary. 
Such permission may be granted 
   by the father prior 
when he thinks it will serve 
    - to quicken more and more
        the love of the Lord, 
            or 
    - if anyone 
          is in need of consolation 
                    or 
         suffers from temptation. 
The prohibition does not extend 
    to a word, a question or an answer, 
for so much may be done without leave. 
7
Compline being finished 
let them kneel down 
   while one of the brothers is reading aloud, 
              so that all may hear him,
    the point on 
         which they are to meditate 
                      or 
         which they should consider 
               during the hour of mental prayer. 
The reading finished 
    let them pray for an hour, 
8
Let the father prior see 
  that they have good books, 
  particularly those of 
     the Carthusians, 
     Contemptus mundi                           [1]
     The Oratory of Religious                    
     Fray Peter of Alcantara, 
     Fray Luis de Granada;
For this nourishment is in part 
   as necessary for the soul 
   as food is for the body. 
9
The whole time they are not 
      present  with the community 
                  or 
      discharging the duties of their office, 
 they must 
  - remain 
       either in their cells 
       or in the hermitage 
          which the father prior shall 
              have assigned them 
           as the place of their retreat, 
  - doing some fitting work there, 
  - fulfilling what the Rule prescribes 
           concerning solitude 
    that every brother shall be alone in his cell. 
When necessary 
  the father prior may give permission 
    to a brother 
    to enter the cell or hermitage of another, 
 but they must always speak in a low voice. 
Let no brother call another ,
    ' Your Paternity,' 
    but ' Your Reverence,' 
    nor ' You,' 
             unless he be a priest; 
They should 
   - address each other, 
           ' Your Charity,' 
                  and 
   - be very polite to each other. 
No one is to be called, 
    ' Master ' or ' Presentado ' 
even if he bear that title; 
Dropping the family names 
   let them adopt the names 
         of those saints 
   to whom they have special devotion, 
ON TEMPORALS 
10
They must always live on alms, 
   having no revenues whatever; 
and so long as they can bear it,
  there must be no begging; 
Great must be their need 
   before they take that step, 
rather let them provide for themselves 
   by the work of their hands, 
         as S, Paul did, 
   for our Lord will furnish them 
        with what is necessary, 
    if they do not ask for more, 
    and are satisfied without comforts; 
   He will not fail them, 
           and 
   they will be able to support life;
   If they labour with all their might
        to please our Lord,
   His Majesty will take care 
       that they shall want nothing. 

11
Let the prior be most careful
   that they
    -  learn how to work 
          and 
    - are occupied in such labour 
         as is fitting and good for Religious   [2] 
          and 
    - are never idle 
          so that the devil may never find them
          off their guard, 
          and 
   - that they may gain their bread, 
        each one for the others, 
and 
what they earn
    let them spend it 
        in buying fish or sardines, 
        and other things lawful to eat, 
and
 let them accept 
   what shall be given in payment 
        without haggling over it. 
They shall strive to make 
     as little noise as possible 
when at work. 
Let the father prior appoint one 
        of the brothers 
    to distribute to the others 
        all that is necessary to them, 
    to whom also shall be handed 
        what they have gained by their work, 
and 
if anyone be careless, 
             and 
    the father prior so order it, 
         let him do some penance 
              at the time of the repast 
              in presence of all. 
12
The friars may not have anything 
    as their own 
    in any way whatever, 
    nor is that ever to be allowed them, 
        either for their food 
        or their clothing; 
they may not have a
             chest or box or 
            drawer or cupboard, 
    unless they have some office
            in the community; 
everything must be in common; 
this is of great importance, 
   for it is by little things 
     the devil is enabled to 
            enter and 
            destroy the perfection of poverty; 
the father prior therefore, 
    must be very careful 
              should he notice a religious 
                  to be attached to anything, 
            whether it be a 
                  book or cell or anything else,
      to take it away from him. 
ON FASTING AND ABSTINENCE 
        FROM FLESHMEAT 
13
They must keep a fast 
    from the Exaltation of the Cross 
          in September 
    till Easter day, Sundays excepted. 

They are never to eat meat                   [3] 
    except in case of illness, 
as the rule enjoins. 
14
The habit is to be of 
    serge or frieze, 
    black and undyed 
          and 
    as little stuff as possible 
         is to be used in it, 
the sleeves 
    narrow, 
    not wider at the wrists 
        than at the shoulder; 
(the habit) 
    not longer at the back 
        than in front, 
             and 
    without pleats, and 
    reaching to the feet;                       [4]
the scapular is 
    to be made of the same stuff, 
    but shorter than the habit 
        by four inches, 
the mantle 
    of the same stuff, 
    but somewhat shorter 
         than the scapular, and 
    as little stuff to be used in it as possible, 
        due regard being had 
             to what is necessary. 
The tunics 
    to be worn over the skin 
    are to be of serge, 
the underclothing 
    of rough material. 
They are to go bare-footed 
    except in cold places 
where they may wear 
     sandals or wooden clogs. 
Necessity should always be studied. 
15
Let them sleep on beds 
    with straw mattresses, 
    without pillows, 
the sheets to be 
     of serge; 
there must be no curtains of any kind, 
unless in case of necessity, 
       a matting of rushes or 
       a door-screen of sack-cloth; 
let it all be poor 
   and without study of comfort. 
OF ENCLOSURE 
16
Let them speak 
      to no one 
except father or brother or mother, 
      or with persons 
        from whom some good result 
              may be expected 
                        and 
        who edify them by their words, 
     but not for the sake of human recreation, 
     but for the affairs of their souls. 
Let them never speak 
    with any woman, 
whether 
     in the porter's lodge or 
     in the church 
except when hearing their confessions 
      and 
with leave from the father prior. 
Let no woman 
        of whatsoever estate 
    enter the enclosure of the monastery 
        for any reason whatsoever; 
but if one come to the porter's lodge 
   to treat with any of the friars 
let the porter be present, 
   and
    if they continue too long 
    let him tell them 
              to be brief and have done. 
17
No religious is to go out 
    to visit anyone,
 but let them always remain 
     in their retreat, 
  unless it be 
        a preacher 
              who may go out to preach 
                   in the villages, 
               or 
        a confessor to
               hear the confession of a sick person
                       and 
               minister consolation; 
   neither shall the preacher 
       go to the house of any person 
                  for his repast, 
   unless it were that of his brother, 
       but if he is not too far 
       let him return to the monastery 
                  for his meals; 
and 
   if  some sick person should wish 
         the said father 
               to hear his confession and 
               to console him, 
         he may go to his house 
               without further permission 
               from the father prior. 
Let no religious 
         eat out of the convent 
                  or 
         mix himself up in worldly matters. 
Let them strive to 
    - derive some spiritual gain 
       from their conversations with seculars, 
                and 
    - see that the latter, too, find some, 
         without any loss of time. 
ON THE RECEIVING OF NOVICES 
18
Great care must be taken 
  that they whom they receive 
     be persons who 
        - give themselves to prayer and 
        - aim at
            all perfection 
                   and 
            contempt of the world; 
for if they are not detached 
    from the world 
         when they come 
    they will hardly bear 
          with the observances of the house, 
    and 
    it is better 
         to look to this beforehand 
    than 
         to send them away afterwards. 
They should be 
    healthy, 
    sensible, and 
    able to carry out 
       what is commanded them. 
Let no one be received 
   unless he knows the grammar, 
and 
when it is proposed to receive someone 
   the religious shall be asked  
        to give secret votes. 
Let them accept nothing 
    from his parents, 
for it they had to send him away 
  it might perhaps be difficult 
      to return to him 
          what he had brought, 
      as it may have been spent. 
19
The porter should accept nothing 
  without having first obtained leave 
      from the father prior,
nor shall any religious 
   without similar permission 
beg of any person 
    were it even his own father or mother. 
20
Every day after collation or supper 
the porter shall 
   rise and 
   tell the whole community 
     what alms have been received that day 
          and 
    from whom, 
        in order that it may be known 
           who has given us alms on that day, 
        so that they may pray to the Lord 
           for him, 
and every day 
   both after dinner and after collation 
let them recite a responsory 
   for his deceased friends. 
21
In each village 
they should have a secular person 
   to collect the alms 
         given by devout persons 
          for the religious 
so that 
    - they may be brought to the monastery, 
      and 
    - no brother is to leave the monastery 
        in order to fetch them. 
They may, however, 
   keep at the monastery 
         a laybrother 
   who may go out to do commissions; 
    he will then wear a habit of black serge.   '
22
Each week one of the religious 
         shall be appointed, 
   who shall be called zelator, 
    whose office and duty it is 
        to notice the faults he may observe 
            in his brethren, 
and each evening after collation, 
when the alms received that day,
         have been recited 
     he shall say 'Benedicite', 
after which 
    he shall begin to make known the faults
         he has seen in each, 
              beginning by the seniors and    
              proceeding to the youngest, 
and 
    any religious named   
       shall kneel down and
       listen to the correction 
               of the faults committed 
       without 
               excusing himself or 
               saying a single word 
        except 
               in very grave matters and 
               with permission of the superior. 
        But he shall simply say: 
            'I will amend myself', 
        and whenever anyone is reprehended,
            he must kneel down, 
         so as to become accustomed 
            to humbling himself.
ON THE HUMBLE OFFICES 
23.
The first on the list of those 
   who are to sweep the house 
       is to be the father prior, 
    that in all things 
       he may give a good example, 
and 
      he shall likewise be the first 
          to fulfill the humble offices. 
Those who have the charge of 
       the wardrobe and 
       the storeroom 
   shall furnish the brethren in all charity 
       with what is required 
               for their subsistence, 
                     and 
       with everything else. 
No more must be done 
    according to the rule 
          for the father prior 
          and the older friars 
     than for any of the others,                [5]
     but it must be as 
          the necessities and 
          the age of each 
       demand, 
     and 
      necessity should be regarded
      rather than age, 
         for sometimes 
             the older the religious
             the fewer the wants; 
      great attention should be paid 
            to this in general, 
       because it is necessary for many reasons. 
Let no brother ever speak of his food, 
   whether he has little or much, 
   whether it be well or ill dressed. 
Let the prior or the one 
   who is over the store-room
 take care that it be well prepared 
    so that they may be satisfied with 
       what is there given them 
    seeing that they have nothing else. 
24
The brothers are bound 
    to make their wants known 
          to the father prior,                         [6]
   the novices 
          to their master, 
  whether of raiment or food, 
and if they require anything 
          out of the way 
   which cannot be given them 
          let them praise God for it, 
    for they have come here to do penance. 
OF THE SICK BROTHERS 
25
Let the sick brothers be tended with 
   affection, charity and delicacy, 
    consistently with our poverty, 
and 
let them give thanks to our Lord 
  when they are well provided for, 
and 
if they want anything 
let them 
        have patience and 
        not fret 
    because they do not have 
       what the rich have 
            at the moment of their need. 
The father prior must take care 
  that the healthy 
          rather than the sick                         [7]
      be without necessaries. 
The sick are to be visited 
   by the religious. 
An infirmarian is to be 
    placed over them 
    possessed of the 
          charity and 
          ability 
       requisite for the discharge of his duty. 
And the sick brothers must then strive to  
   show the perfection 
       they have gained when in health, 
   by patience and 
   by giving the least trouble they can; 
let them be always obedient 
   to the infirmarian, 
           and 
   they both will derive benefit 
           from the sickness. 
Let them have 
         good beds with pillows and
         linen sheets, 
and 
   linen shirts may be served out to them. 
They may also go out 
                  to take the air and 
          may eat meat, 
                  and 
all the comfort to be had 
         is to be given them. 
26
When a religious has to go out 
   let him take no money with him 
but rather ask for alms; 
neither shall he ride on horseback 
   except in case of illness 
when he may ride a horse or a he-mule, 
   but not a she-mule 
    which is contrary to the rule.           [8]
As for the dinner hour 
    that cannot be regular, 
because that must be 
    as our Lord gives; 
when they have anything to eat 
   the meal shall be 
      in winter at eleven 
             and 
      in summer at ten. 
Before sitting down to eat, 
   if our Lord inspires a brother 
        to do an act of  mortification, 
   let him ask leave, 
               and 
   let not this good practice be lost, 
      out of which some profit is derived; 
   but it must be quickly done, 
   so that it shall not interfere 
        with the reading. 
27
No brother may eat or drink 
    without leave 
except  at dinner or supper. 
28
When they come out 
    from dinner and collation 
the father prior may dispense with silence  [9]
  that they may talk together 
       of anything they like; 
       only it must be about things 
          a good religious may speak of. 
29
Let them strive 
   not to be wearisome one to another, 
   nor shall there be particular friendships, 
   but let them all love 
          each other in general 
          as Christ commanded his apostles. 
30
No one may publicly correct another
   for faults he may see him commit;
if the faults be grave 
  let him remind the other of them charitably
when they are alone, 
and
 if no amendment follow 
     after three admonitions 
   let him speak to the father prior. 
There are zelators 
    whose duty it is 
         to notice faults and 
         to make known what they have seen, 
but let them 
    mind their own and 
    meddle not with those 
       which are committed in the discharge 
             of the duties of the house, 
    unless it be something grave 
    which they are under obligation to observe.
Let them be very careful 
    never to defend themselves 
        when found fault with, 
    unless it be in grave matters, 
        for they will make great profit thereby. 
The father prior should 
    nominate another relator secretly 
  to tell him the faults 
         committed in the house 
  which may have escaped the public zelator. 
31
The punishment 
     of the faults and failings committed 
           in regard to the things mentioned 
   shall be in conformity with our rule, 
   namely the penalties detailed 
        in our holy constitutions 
   for greater and minor faults. 
32
In all that has been said 
  the father prior may dispense 
       as far as is right, 
       with discretion and charity, 
  as it does not oblige 
       under the penalty of sin, 
   but only under bodily penance.           [10]
33
The monastery should 
     never be of costly workmanship, 
            except the church, 
     nor should there be anything elaborate. 
The woodwork shall be rough, 
     just as it leaves the timberyard;
the house small, 
the rooms low, 
    so as to answer to necessity, 
       and 
     nothing superfluous, 
     but everything as solid 
         as it can be made; 
the enclosure wall high. 
They may have a field 
    wherein to construct hermitages 
          in which to retire for prayer 
   conformably to the custom 
          of  our holy fathers. 
34
In our constitutions, 
    to which we hereby refer, 
is said 
   what each one must do 
        for the discharge of his various duties;
   what has been laid down above 
        refers to the employment of time. 
Given by our most Reverend Father 
   Fray John Baptist Rubeo
   General of the whole Order 
    of our Lady of Mount Carmel.

                          Foot Notes:
 [1]
  Contemptus Mundi,
    i.e. the Imitation
    (The Imitation of Christ - Thomas Kempis). 
    Note the plural Los Cartujanos 
     which evidently refers to other works 
     besides the Life of Christ.
    Ludolf  of Saxony 
       which S. Teresa calls El Cartujano. 
    The Oratory of Religious 
    was written  by Antonio  de Guevara. 
____________
 [2]
 In marg.: studentes non ocrupentur. 

   . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  Blog Note: ( our guess  ?)
   In the margin was written,
    'studentes non occupentur'
    An advisement regarding
   the need to assign suitable activities
    for  the students / seminarians;
    A warning  against
        "not to be occupied".
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 ____________________  
         
 [3]
 Marg. : Vide at ur regula: 
   nam supra mare etc. 

  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 Blog Note's rough translation:
   "In the margin was written:
   'See the rule: for on the sea'  "
  (regarding when on the sea)
  This seems to be referring to an exception
   to the prohibition of meat
  Also See    "The Carmelite Rule"   #11
     The Rule Of The Order 
    Of Our Lady Of Mount Carmel
     ( sanctioned for those 
        of the monastery 
        of the Picture  at Alcala  )
     In this "Book of the Foundations"
   "and in the same way, 
     at sea, 
     when making a voyage, 
        you may eat flesh."
   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
___________
 [4]
  Marg. : Sic Jiant ista 
     quod non sint derisioni. 

   .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  Blog Note's rough translation:
        (  Jiant / fiant  )
  " In the margin was written, 
   'Thus be made
   so as there is not derision.' "
   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
______________
  [5]
   The original has 'las', 
       in the feminine gender. 
____________
 [6]
   The original had first 'a la madre' 
     which was afterwards changed
         into 'al padre'. 

   From this 
     as well as from the fact
    that these constitutions are 
          to a large extent 
     a literal extract from those 
        given by S. Teresa to the nuns,
     it is clear that Rubeo had the latter 
         before him 
     when he drew up these. 
   It also shows 
    that he fully approved 
       S. Teresa's constitutions 
          and 
    Invested them 
         with his own authority
_________________
 [7]
  Originally 'las sanas' and 'las enfermas', 
    which was corrected into
   'los sanos' and 'los enfermos'. 
   . .  . . . . . . . . . . . 
  Blog Note:
    Originally referring to           
      the healthy and the sick nuns,
           (feminine plural)
         'las sanas' and 'las enfermas'
    but changed to a reference to
      the healthy and the sick friars
        'los sanos' and 'los enfermos'. 
          (masculine plural). 
   . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
___________
 [8]
The rule says as 'mos s'lve miilos. 
  In a bull of Gregory IX 
      of 6th April 1229,
   the hermits of Mount Carmel 
       are forbidden various kinds of property 
          'prater asinos masculos'' 
        (Bullarium. Carmel. i, 4). 

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   Blog Note's rough translation
        'masculos' mulos'
         masculine mule ' he-mules
       as in the text
         'when he may may ride a horse 
               or a he-mule'
        above in paragraph #26

        Regarding the bull of Gregory IX 
             of 6th April 1229,
         'prater asinos masculos'' ,
         forbidding 'other than  male mules'
      . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
_____________________
 [9]
  'Originally la madre 
     which was changed into 'la padre prior'. 
____________________
 [10]
  TheReligious Vows oblige 
        under mortal sin, 
   the Rule 
        under venial sin, 
                and 
   the Constitutions 
        under no sin 
        (except under certain circumstances), 
          but under an exterior penalty. 

                   End of    
               APPENDIX II 
       Rule and Constitutions 
       for the Discalced Friars 
        of the Order of our Lady 
        of Mount Carmel, 
        of the Primitive Rule unrelaxed, 
                       in the
       Book of the Foundations
          of S. Teresa of Jesus 
   of the Order of our Lady of Carmel 


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