Tuesday, September 20, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Discussion of Chapter 27 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

       The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
     of the Order of our Lady of Carmel 
      Discussion of Chapter 27     XXVII

        Chapter 27      Contents
 Treats Of  
  -The Foundation In The City 
     Of Caravaca
  - The Blessed Sacrament Is Reserved 
       On New Year's Day 
     Of The Same Year 1576
  - It Bears The Title Of 
      The Glorious Saint Joseph 
  1. Caravaca. — 
  2. The Saint undertakes 
        the foundation. —
  3. Difficulties. — 
  4. The final arrangements made. — 
  5. The lords of Caravaca claim 
       the jurisdiction over the monastery. —
  6. The nuns intended for Caravaca. — 
  7. Sent out. — 
  8. Evils of melancholy. — 
  9. Nuns to guard against laxity. — 
10. Exhortation to the nuns. —
11. No one to be refused 
         because she is poor. — 
12. How nuns ought to dispose 
         of their wealth. — 
13. The Saint confesses her integrity. — 
14. And the hand of God. — 
15. The hardships endured by the Saint. — 
16. Her affection for the nuns. — 
17. The monasteries founded 
          with the sanction of theGeneral. — 
18. The foundations stopped. — 
19. The Saint's joy. — 
20. The Saint rejoiced in her troubles. — 
21. Reasons of her writing. — 
22. Interrupted and resumed. — 
23. Ceases from writing. — 
24. And asks for prayers. 

    The account of  the Foundation at Caravaca
        The Monastery of St. Joseph 
             at Caravaca
        was founded on January 1, 1576
             on New year's Day 
        on the Feastday  of the Holy Name of Jesus
          Chronology of  this Foundation 

          Envisioning a Foundation at Caravaca
          The Preparations and Arrangements
          The Foundation is established 

    St. Teresa's  Instructions to the Nuns
          With the help of God,  
                 pray and strive in order 
              •  to continue what God had begun
                    in the founding of these monasteries
              •  not to hinder the work of God,
              •  to remain faithful to the Rule.
    St. Teresa discusses various aspects 
         of the founding of the monasteries:
   Writing the History of the Foundations:
         Reasons for  her writing

 [The above  Drawing is from
   "St Teresa of Jesus of the Order
     of Our Lady of Mt Carmel
   embracing The Life , Relations, 
    Maxims, and Foundations"
   Edited by John J. Burke, C.S.P.
   from www.books.google.com

            Discussion of Chapter 27 

   The account of  the Foundation at Caravaca
        The Monastery of St. Joseph 
             at Caravaca
        was founded on January 1, 1576
             on New year's Day 
        on the Feastday  of the Holy Name of Jesus
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     
     Although St. Teresa is relating
       the account of each foundation 
           one at a time, chapter by chapter,
     many of these convents were being established
                at the same time.
      Malagon and Valadolid 
          were established in 1568 by St. Teresa 
      within 4 months of eachother.
      Toledo and Pastrana 
            were established in 1569  by St. Teresa 
       within 2 months of eachother.
      Salamanca and  Alba de Tormes 
            were established in 1570-1571 by St. Teresa
      within 3 months of eachother.
      Beas and Seville 
            were established in 1575  by St. Teresa 
      within 3 months of eachother.
       During which she was also 
             making arrangements for Caravaca.

  Chronology of  the Foundation of Caravaca
 February  1575
          St. Teresa, in Avila,  receives the request of 
               Dona Catalina de Otalora
          to start a foundation in Caravaca.

          "It was in February 
            they had sent the message to Avila."  
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #5 ]
          "the messenger of Dona Catalina 
             found her there (in Avila) in February 1575"
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                            Foot note #10 ] 
 March 10,  1575
          "March 10. 
            Agreement for the Caravaca convent signed"
                  ["Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila":
                          Vol 1: Introduction: 
                           An outline of the Life of St. Teresa 
                           Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
          "The contract whereby the young ladies
               bound themselves to contribute...      
               bears the date of  10th March 1575".     
                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                     Foot note #6 ] 
 June 9, 1575
          "June 9. 
               New licence for the Caravaca convent
               granted by Philip II"
                     ["Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila": 
                         Vol 1: Introduction: 
                         An outline of the Life of St. Teresa 
                         Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
 December 18, 1575
            The Discalced Carmelite Nuns 
                   arrive in Caravaca
                to establish the convent.

             "They arrived 18th December 1575".
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                     Foot note #14 ] 
 January 1, 1576
               The Foundation is established
                  with the First Mass offered and 
               The  Blessed sacrament reserved 
               "The monastery was founded, and 
                  the Most Holy Sacrament carried in 
                  on the feast of the Name of Jesus, 1576."
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 27:  #7 ] 
                 "January 1. 
                  Foundation of Convent at Caravaca  
                  during ( St. Teresa's)  stay in Seville"
                      ["Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila": 
                         Vol 1: Introduction: 
                         An outline of the Life of St. Teresa 
                          Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
                  The foundation of Caravaca 
                       made 1st Jan.
                  while the Saint was in Seville, 
                       searching for a house, and 
                       waiting tor the licence 
                         of the archbishop. 
                               [ Foundations: Introduction:
                                  "Annals of the Saint's Life" ]  
 November 14, 1576
                   "St. Teresa finished writing this account
                    while in the Monastery at Toledo
                          "14th November 1576, 
                    in the monastery of S. Joseph, Toledo"
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 27:  #23 ]

  Envisioning a Foundation at Caravaca
     ▪  Dona Catalina de Otalora  of Caravaca
            sent a messenger to St. Teresa
            requested a Convent to be founded
            in Caravaca
            "It was in February 
                 they had sent the message to Avila."  
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #5 ] 
           There were 3 young womanin Caravaca
             who hoped to enter  the Carmelite Order
           "after hearing a sermon 
              by a father of the Society of Jesus"
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #1 ] 
             "Father Leiva, a Jesuit,  spoke to them 
                   of S. Teresa and her convents."
                                                [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                               Foot note #3 ] 

           "The young ladies were 
               Dona Francisca de Sarjosa
                     a cousin of Dona Catalina; 
               Dona Francisca de Moya  
               Dona Francisca de Tauste"
                                                  [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                                Foot note #2 ] 

 The Preparations and Arrangements

        A house was  provided 
             "it was in the house of Rodrigo de Moya
              who..was the father of one of the young girls, 
                    Dona Francisca de Cuellar
              and who had given us a part of it
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #4  
                                                       and Foot note #2 ] 
             "those who were to become nuns, 
                 lodged...in a room by themselves, 
               as if they were already withdrawn 
                 from the world."
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #3 ] 
        Father Julian of Avila and Antonio Gaytan
            are requested to go beforehand 
                to evaluate and expedite preparations.
             "I begged the Father Julian of Avila 
                    and Antonio Gaytan
               to go and see how the matter stood...      
             "They found it had been 
                     very much neglected"   
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #3 ] 
              "they had the deeds drawn up 
                             before they returned"
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #3 ] 
            "I sent back again the good Antonio Gaytan"
            "I told him to go and put up 
                   the turn with the grating 
             where they were to take possession, 
             where the nuns were to remain
                   till they found a proper house."

             "He was there many days 
                   exceedingly well pleased, 
                   busy with this. "
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #4 ] 
       Difficulties with the License
                "The jurisdiction of Caravaca 
                      was divided between 
                             the knights and 
                             the bishop of Cartagena..."
                                                   [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                                Foot note #7 ]
                "When they had obtained the licence...
                 I heard that by one of the clauses thereof
                  - the house was to be subject 
                         to the commandery, 
                  - that the nuns were to yield
                           obedience to the knights"            [7]
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #5 ] 
                That I could not allow, 
                 because it was to be a house 
                     of the Order of Our Lady of Carmel, 
                 and accordingly they applied 
                     for another licence ; 
                 and here...
                      they could not get it. 
                 But the king now reigning, Don Philip... 
                  he gave orders for the issuing 
                       of the licence, 
                  ....he helped us in everything
                Then...another application 
                     had to be made for a licence,
                 and the poor children (nuns to be)
                      continued shut up
                 till the following New Year's Day. 
                The licence now was very soon obtained..." 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #5 ] 
          St. Teresa, unable to come to Caravaca,
                 sends the prioress and nuns for that convent:
                    "They arrived 18th December 1575"
                          at Caravaca
                                                  [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                              Foot note #14 ] 
                     "...it was impossible for me to go myself, 
                      because of the great distance            
                      because this (Seville) foundation             
                           was not yet completely made, 
                     "the Father-Master Fray Jerome Gratian, 
                         who...was apostolic visitor at the time, 
                      resolved that the nuns 
                          who were intended 
                                 for the foundation there, 
                          who were then 
                                 in S. Joseph's of Malagon
                         should go thither, 
                                 though I could not go with them. 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #6 ] 
                      "The Saint ... chose Anne of S. Albert 
                           (as Prioress) for Caravaca
                        who was sent from Seville, 
                           where she was at this time, 
                      and was to take with her from Malagon
                         the nuns whom the Saint had left there 
                      for the foundation in Caravaca. 
                      These were 
                            Barbara of the Holy Ghost
                                  sub-prioress ; 
                           Anne of the Incarnation
                            Juana of  S. Jerome, and 
                            Catharine of the Assumption"               
                                                 [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                             Foot note #13 ] 

             "they departed with two of our fathers 
                     of  the barefooted Carmelites"       [14]
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #7 ] 
                    "Father Ambrose of S. Peter, 
                            sub-prior of Almodovar
                    and another 
                             whose name is not on record" 
                   They arrived 18th December 1575. 
                                                   [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                              Foot note #14 ] 

  The Foundation is established 
           "The monastery was founded, and 
                the Most Holy Sacrament carried in 
                   on the feast of the Name of Jesus, 1576.  
              "On the first day of the year, 
                  which is that 
                       of the Circumcision and
                       of the Name of Jesus, 
                  under the patronage 
                       of the glorious S. Joseph"        
                                                 [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                           Foot note #15 ] 
               "Two of them 
                 (the young ladies desiring to enter Carmel)
                     took the habit at once" 
                                                [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #7 ] 

                           "Dona Francisca de Cuellar 
                                          (Frances of the Cross); 
                            Dona Francisca de Tauste 
                                         (Frances of S. Joseph); 
                            the...two made profession 
                                     27th October 1577, 
                                                 [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                              Foot note #16 ] 
               "while the third...
                        Dona Francisca de Sarjossa 
                        (Frances of the Mother of God)
                             ...put on the habit..
                             in about two or three months 
                                after this.
                            (and) ....made profession ... 
                                 1st June 1578. 
                                                   [ Foundations: Ch. 27:
                                                            Foot note #16 ] 

   St. Teresa's  Instructions to the Nuns

  With the help of God,  
       pray and strive in order 
           • to continue what God had begun
                    in the founding of these monasteries
           • not to hinder the work of God,
           • to remain faithful to the Rule.
     St. Teresa exhorts the nuns 
          who have entered these foundations regarding:
         Thanksgiving and Prayer
              to God, whose work it is,
                     and  also 
              for all the Nuns, Fathers, Brothers, 
                     Patrons, and Laity
               who toiled in poverty and difficulties
                    in order to bring about these foundations,
             She prays that 
              "His Majesty (will continue to)
                  - pour down His grace  abundantly on us, 
                    for then nothing will hinder us 
                         from advancing ever more and more
                         in His service, 
                         and also 
                  - protect and defend us all, 
                      so that what has been well begun
                          as it has been his good pleasure 
                          to have made a beginning 
                               in such poor women as we are, 
                      may not prove a failure 
                               through our weakness. 
            To observe the rule
                 so that the spirit of the foundations,  
                        will be preserved
                 as well as the peace and joy 
                      of pleasing God 
                  that is found within these convents.
                      - "to pray to our Lord for this, 
                      - let every one of those 
                           who shall hereafter enter 
                         look on herself 
                           as if the primitive rule 
                              of the order of the Virgin our Lady 
                           had its beginning in her
                      - never in any way consent 
                            to any mitigation of it. 
                      - that the door is opened 
                           for very great laxity 
                         by very little things, 
                      - that the world may come in 
                            before you are aware of it. 
                      that what you possess in peace 
                       has been wrought in poverty and toil
                      and if you look deeply into it 
                      you will see 
                      - that most of these houses 
                             were generally founded,
                                  not by man, 
                                  but by the mighty hand of God 
                      - that His Majesty is most ready 
                             to carry on the work He has begun 
                         if we do not hinder Him".
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #9 ] 

                  "you will find it to be His work."
                  "It is not right 
                        we should in any way impair it, 

                         ...for life is to live 
                         - in such a way as not to be afraid 
                              of death, 
                              of anything that may happen 
                                 while it lasts, 
                        - in the possession 
                               of  that continual joyfulness 
                                   which you now have all of you, 
                               of this prosperity 
                                   that never can be greater, 
                               consisting in the utter absence 
                                   of the fear of poverty, 
                                   or rather in the desire of it."

                         "It is in your power 
                               to live and die in it 
                           as you saw them die 
                               who have died in these houses. 
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #10 ] 
                           (never) "would I in any way do, 
                            nor have I done anything whatever, 
                                    if I but knew it, 
                                that swerved by a hair's breadth 
                                    from the will of our Lord, 
                                according to the directions 
                                     of my confessors" 
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #13 ] 

               "Then, if you always 
                         - pray God  to further this work, 
                         - having no confidence 
                                      in yourselves
                            — if you put your trust in Him, 
                                     and are courageous — 
                           seeing that His Majesty loves it. 
                               He will not withhold His mercy."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #10 ] 

               "I, too, see very clearly 
                    that the work was 
                          not mine, 
                          but God's
                          Who willed it should be done; 
                     and, as it was His own work,
                           He helped me, 
                            and was thus gracious unto me. 
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #14 ] 

       Regarding the Admission of Nuns 
               into the Convent
           ▪ "No one to be refused 
                    because she is poor."
                         "Have no fear 
                           that you will ever 
                               be in want of  anything; 
                           Never fail to receive those 
                                 who come to be nuns 
                                  merely because they are 
                                     without worldly goods, 
                          - if  they are virtuous, 
                          - when you are satisfied 
                              with their good desires 
                                    and their abilities, 
                         - they come not simply 
                              for a place to live in, 
                            but rather to serve God 
                              in greater  perfection; 
                          for God, on the other hand, 
                             will give you that twofold 
                         which you should have had with them. 

                          His Majesty knows well 
                              that, so far as I can remember, 
                          I never failed to receive one 
                              because she was poor, 
                           provided I  was pleased with her 
                               in other respects.  
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #11 ] 

         ▪  "How nuns ought to dispose 
                       of their wealth"
                            "When one comes with means, 
                                  under no obligations 
                              to bestow them on others...
                                  it is right she should give them 
                                        to you 
                                   by way of  alms"
                   This would seem reasonable 
                        for the  Monasteries  
                     so that the cost of housing and feeding 
                         of the  nun would be supported.
                    But, she advises                              
                     "it would be a serious evil 
                         if we claimed the property of anyone 
                      that came to us for any other end 
                          but that."
                     She teaches that the convents benefit 
                        from   a  nun's actions 
                            of  devotion to God   
                            and charity and obedience 
                      not from "anything 
                            she may bring with her,".
                          "We make a much greater gain 
                                — that is, we act 
                                     in much greater perfection — 
                            when she does 
                                that which is a duty to God, 
                            than by receiving 
                                anything she may bring with her, 
                            for we all of us have no aim....
                           other than the service of His Majesty 
                                in and by everything."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #12 ] 

 St. Teresa discusses various aspects 
            of the founding of the monasteries:

          The difficulties of administering 
                 multiple foundation in different locations

                        "When I had my health 
                           I  bore all my bodily toils with joy. 
                        "I had not a little to bear 
                             when I had to bear with, 
                          as it was necessary 
                           I should in every place, 
                            - the tempers of many people, 
                            - in leaving behind 
                           my daughters and my sisters
                              when I had to go away 
                                  from one place to another: 
                             that was not, I may tell you, 
                                 the least of my crosses, 
                             for I love them so much 
                             — especially when I considered 
                             that I might never see them again, 
                             saw them sorrowing and weeping; 
                             for, though they are detached 
                                  from everything else, 
                             God has not given them 
                                  this kind of detachment, 
                              perhaps that it might be 
                                  a greater anguish for me; 
                              neither was I detached from them"         
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #16 ] 

          The monasteries were founded 
                 not only with permission of  her superiors,
                 but in obedience to their directives.
                    "these monasteries were founded 
                         not only with the permission 
                             of ...our father-general, 
                         but by an express precept 
                             or commandment 
                                    subsequently given. 
                    This is not all, 
                     for he wrote to me to say 
                         of the foundation of each house 
                     that it gave him 
                          the very greatest pleasure 
                     when the foundations...were made. 
                    ...I felt that I was pleasing our Lord 
                       when I was pleasing him, 
                    for he is my superior..."      
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #17 ] 

                    "Our Father-General... 
                     when I had begged him not to bid me 
                          make any more foundations, 
                      says that he wished me 
                          to found as many monasteries 
                          as I had hairs on my head.' 
                                                 [ Foundations: Ch. 27: 
                                                             Foot note #19 ] 
            St. Teresa is directed to cease 
                   establishing new foundations
                    (for a time)
               "The foundations stopped. "

               "there was brought to me 
                    from the general chapter,                
                 a decree of the definitory 
                 enjoining me 
                   ◦   not only to make no more foundations, 
                   ◦   but also, on no account whatever,
                             to leave the house 
                        I should choose to dwell in, 
               At the same time
                two other and very grave charges 
                        were brought against me, 
                but they were not true."                         
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #18 ] 
                After Caravaca, her 12th convent,
                        which was founded on 1 January, 1576
                there was a four year suspension.
                The thirteenth convent, 
                         Villanueva de la Jara, 
                    was founded 21 Feb., 1580        
                    [ See Foundations: Introduction:
                       List of monasteries ]
                 "The Saint had now been ordered 
                        by the provincial to 
                            leave Seville 
                            take up her residence 
                                  in some other monastery,
                        the choice of which was, 
                            however, left to her. 
                                     [ Foundations: Ch. 25: 
                                                    Foot note #5 ]

                "though the provincial told her 
                     she might appeal to His Holiness 
                     against his decree, 
                 she would obey the general 
                 and seek no relief, 
                 but submit herself to his rule."
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 27: 
                                                             Foot note #21 ] 

                  (end of year)
                  Fray Angel de Salazar, 
                      provincial of Castille, 
                  bids the Saint make no more foundations,  
                  orders her further to withdraw
                    into any one of her monasteries, 
                   and there to remain. 
                  She proposes to withdraw
                        to Valladolid at once...
                   but Fray Jerome bids her stay 
                     for the present where she is"
                  (because she is needed in  Seville)  
                   4th June
                   She sets out for Toledo, 
                      where she was to stay 
                       according to the order of the general...
                    9th August, 
                    she is settled in Toledo."
                                        [ Foundations: Introduction:
                                         Annals of the Saint's Life" ]

                     (Shortly before Christmas). 
                     Receives a written order 
                        from the General to leave Andalusia
                     and to go to reside 
                        in a Castilian convent. 
                     P. Gracian authorizes her to stay 
                        at Seville till the summer .
                     (From June 1576 to June 1580 
                     St. Teresa is mainly at Toledo and Avila.
                     Strife within the Order 
                         holds up the foundations.)

                         [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila  
                           Volume 1: Introduction
                      "An outline of the Life of St. Teresa" 
                            Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
                     "The prohibition to make foundations, 
                        if it had not been for the displeasure 
                           of the most reverend general, 
                      would have been a great comfort to me" 
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #19 ] 

                     "1579   ( approximately June)
                      P. Salazar authorizes St. Teresa 
                          to resume the visitation 
                       of her convents."
                          [ Complete Works St. Teresa of Avila  
                           Volume 1: Introduction
                      "An outline of the Life of St. Teresa" 
                            Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
            St. Teresa remained content and in peace
                        in the face of  opposition

                        "I had a joy 
                             in the contradictions and reproaches 
                          I met with 
                             while employed 
                          in making these foundations; 
                        "my chief source of joy lay in this...       
                            that, as creatures thus repaid me, 
                         I must have pleased my Creator, 
                         for I know 
                           that he 
                              who will take his pleasure 
                                   in the things of earth 
                                   in the praise of men 
                             will be greatly deceived...           
                         men are 
                             of one opinion today, 
                             of another tomorrow; 
                         that of which 
                             they once speak well
                             they soon revile. 
                         Blessed be Thou, 
                             my God and my Lord, 
                         who never changest, never ! " 
                                     [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #20 ] 

  Writing the History of the Foundations:

        Reasons for  her writing.

                   "I began to write 
                        the history of these foundations
                    at the commandment 
                        of the Father-Master Ripalda 
                        of the Society of Jesus, 
                    He was then rector 
                       of the college in Salamanca 
                     and I used to confess to him. 

            ▪  Benefits
                         "our Lord having told her 
                             that(the book od the Foundations)
                          would be to the profit of many souls."
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 27: 
                                                             Foot note #26 ] 
                         "the great desire I had while writing 
                              to be able to say something 
                           that might be a comfort to you..."          
                                    [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #24 ] 
                          The writings also provided information
                            regarding those 
                               Nuns, Fathers, Brothers, Bishops,
                               patrons, and  laity
                            who donated and strived 
                               in the founding of these convents.
                           Their example 
                             of  devotion, generosity,  and effort
                            provides a model for the reader
                             and for those nuns who joined
                               and will  join the Order.
          ▪ Request for prayers

                         "I implore the sisters and brothers 
                             who shall read this, 
                           for the love of our Lord, 
                              to pray to our Lord for me"             
                                    [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #24 ] 
                         St. Teresa often directed her nuns 
                          to pray for  those 
                             who have helped them
                             who toiled 
                                   in poverty and difficulties
                                to establish these foundations,
                           "It is only reasonable...my sisters...  
                              that you should pray to God 
                           for one who has done 
                                so much for us, 
                           and for others also, 
                               whether he be living or dead.
                            ...I write this for that end:
                          to this holy man we owe much."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 25: #8 ]

        Chronology of the writing   

                The writing of the history 
                     of  her foundation at Avila                        
                   was requested by Fray Garcia of Toledo,
                   It was included  in "The Life",
                     Chapters 32 - 34

                    "Some of it I wrote 
                        when I was sojourning there 
                      (in Salamanca) in the monastery 
                         of the glorious S. Joseph, 
                      in the year 1573"
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #21 ] 

                      In Salamanca 
                      her confessor, Father Jerome Ripalda
                       bids her write 
                           the history of her foundations
                       She begins to write 24th August"
                                     [ Foundations: Introduction:
                                        "Annals of the Saint's Life" ]

                     Athough she wrote under obedience,
                      she later did not concurrently record
                         the history of  the new foundations 
                      as they were established
                   "because of my many occupations,  
                     because I was not then confessing to him 
                        — Fr Ripalda had gone to another part 
                                    of the country —
                               and also 
                     because it cost me 
                          so much toll and labour to write"
                   "I was ordered to finish the work.      [26]
                       by the father the commissary apostolic, 
                    who is at present 
                       the Fray Jerome Gratian 
                              of the Mother of God
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #21 ] 

                     And though she  
                       "had few opportunities...for writing...
                      nevertheless he commanded me 
                         to finish it by degrees, 
                      or when I could."  
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #22 ] 
                    "I finish today, the vigil of S. Eugenius, 
                         14th November 1576, 
                     in the Monastery of S. Joseph, Toledo
                        where I am staying 
                     by the order 
                         of the commissary apostolic, 
                     Fray Jerome Gratian
                         of the Mother of God"       
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #23 ] 

                    "1582  (July) 
                        Completes Foundations…" 
                            [Complete Works St.Teresa of Avila 
                             Vol 1: Introduction: 
                             An outline of the Life of St. Teresa 
                             Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]

           ◦  Avila  Foundation's History
                      ( Avila    24 August, 1562)
               in the Autobiography, "The Life"
                Chapters 32 - 34
                         "The history of the 
                              Foundation of S. Joseph, Avila,
                           was written by direction 
                              of Fray Garcia of Toledo
                            and is inserted in the Life, 
                               (chs. xxxii, ii-xxxvi.) 
                  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  -
           ◦  Medina del Campo    15  August,   1567
               Malagon                           11   April,       1568
               Valladolid                      15   August,   1568
                  Duruelo (friars)            28  Nov.        1568
               Toledo                               14   May,        1569
               Pastrana                            9   July,        1569
                   Pastrana (friars)          13   July          1569
               Salamanca                       1    Nov.        1570
               Alba de Tormes           25   Jan.         1571
                         "Then she was commanded 
                               by Father Ripalda, S.J., 
                           to write the history 
                               of the other foundations,
                           which she began to do in Salamanca 
                           on the feast of S. Bartholomew, 1573 
                                    (Foundations: Prologue § 5), 
                           and brought it down to the history 
                           of the foundation in Alba de Tormes; 
                             and thus the first part 
                                    ends with ch. xx".
                        "my confessor, the Master Ripalda
                          Father Rector of the Society, 
                                        has ordered me to write
                         He, having seen the book containing 
                                 the story of the first foundation,
                          thought it would be a service 
                                done to our Lord
                          if I committed to writing the story 
                         of the other seven monasteries"
                                        [ Foundations: Prologue: #2]

          ◦ Segovia      19    March,        1574
            Beas             25   February,   1575
            Seville         29   May,            1575
            Caravaca     1    January,     1576
                      "When she was staying in Toledo...
                        she was directed by Fray Jerome 
                                  to finish the book
                        and she then added the rest, 
                             beginning with ch. xxi
                             down to the end of ch. xxvii...  
                      Fray Jerome laid his command upon her 
                         soon after her arrival in Toledo...              
                       And in another letter to Father Gratian 
                         dated 5th October 1576, 
                       the Saint says she was then going 
                          to begin to write, 
                       our Lord having told her 
                           that it would be 
                       to the profit of many souls. 
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 27: 
                                                             Foot note #26 ] 
                       "On the 9th day of August (1576)
                          the Saint was in Toledo."
                                              [ Foundations: Ch. 26
                                                                Foot note #1 ]
                        "In Toledo the Saint continues 
                              the Book of the Foundations 
                          as far as ch. xxvii, 
                          adding to it the account 
                              of the foundations of Segovia, 
                               Veas, Seville, and Caravaca"
                                       [ Foundations: Introduction:
                                        "Annals of the Saint's Life" ]
                       "I finish today, the vigil of S. Eugenius, 
                              14th November 1576, 
                       in the Monastery of S. Joseph, Toledo"     
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 27: #23 ] 
                      "1576... November 14. 
                        Completes Chapter XXVII
                                of Foundations"    (Caravaca)
                           [Complete Works St.Teresa of Avila: 
                             Vol 1: Introduction: 
                             An outline of the Life of St. Teresa 
                             Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]
             ◦   The later Foundations
                      "1582  (July) 
                        Completes Foundations 
                           (Chapter)  XXXI was being written 
                        at "the end of June" 
                             [Complete Works St.Teresa of Avila 
                              Vol 1: Introduction: 
                              An outline of the Life of St. Teresa 
                              Translated by Edgar Allison Peers ]

           End of  the Discussion 
                   of Chapter 27 
                         of the 
            Book of the Foundations
                of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel   

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