Saturday, September 10, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Discussion of Chapter 24 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

       The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
     of the Order of our Lady of Carmel 
      Discussion of Chapter 24 

          Chapter 24 Contents
            The Foundation 
          Of  S. Joseph Of  Carmel 
          In The City Of  Seville 
    1. The Saint's joy 
         in Fray Jerome's visit. — 
   2. He is made visitor of  the Order. — 
   3. The Saint leaves Veas for Seville. — 
   4. Ill on the road. — 
   5. Suffering from fever. — 
   6. Risk in crossing a river. — 
   7. Difficulty of entering Cordova. — 
   8. Church full of people. — 
   9. Difficulties in Seville. — 
 10. More difficulties. — 
 11. Destitute condition of the nuns. — 
 12. The Saint nearly leaves Seville. — 

 13. But waits. — 
 14. The archbishop relents. 

 [ The above Drawing is from: 
   "St Teresa of Jesus of the Order
      of Our Lady of Mt Carmel
    embracing The Life , Relations, 
     Maxims, and Foundations"
   Edited by John J. Burke, C.S.P.
   from ]

  The site of the Carmelite Convent in Seville 
   drawn as it was in approximately 1866

                   Discussion of Chapter 24 
    The Foundation at Seville   on  May 29, 1575
             on May 29, 1575
             on the feast of the Most Holy Trinity:
         Background and origin of this foundation
            St. Teresa is delayed and waits in Beas 
         Fr. Jerome envisions a Foundation 
                     for Seville

         The Difficulties of the Journey
         Eventually obtaining 
                the Archbishop's consent
               The necessity of  the Bishop's permission
               Presumption of the Archbishop's approval 
               Lack of Permission of the Archbishop
               St. Teresa's  Perspective
               The Archbishop finally Consents

    The Foundation at Seville
    •  Father Fray Mariano hired a house
           in Seville  
                        "reaching the house in Seville,        
                             which the Father Fray Mariano 
                               had hired for us 
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #3 ]
    •  St. Teresa and her company arrived  there 
         from Beas  

                        "On Thursday, 26th May 1575, 
                             within the octave of Pentecost."
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note #17 ]
                        "yet we reached Seville 
                             only on the Thursday                        
                          before the feast 
                              of the Most Holy Trinity, 
                                26th May 1575."
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #3
                                                     and Foot note # 12 ]
 •   The Foundation of S. Joseph of Carmel 
              in the City of  Seville 
              The first Mass of the Foundation of Seville 
                   was offered  on May 29, 1575
               on the feast of the Most Holy Trinity:
                         "The archbishop allowed us, 
                           but it must have been 
                                after urgent pressing 
                                on the part of  Father Mariano, 
                           to have Mass said 
                                on the feast 
                                of the Most Holy Trinity,  
                           and that was the first. "
                           ...29th May 1575...
                                    [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #12
                                           and Foot note #20 ]

                         "Mass had been said 
                                with the archbishop's leave...
                         It was one of his chaplains 
                         whom he had sent 
                                to say the first mass
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #13 ]

     • At Seville her companions included:
                         "we (went)  to Seville                                     
                               with my good companions  
                               Father Julian of Avila, 
                              Antonio Gaytan" 
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #3 ]
                                    "Gregory Nazianzen
                                         (who) had received the habit 
                                          in Veas from Fray Jerome 
                                         Soon after he was made 
                                            master of novices
                                        in Seville, 
                                            where he was professed 
                                             27th March 1576. 
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note #11 ]
                                      Mary of S. Joseph, 
                              Isabel of S. Francis,
                              Mary of the Holy Ghost, 
                              Isabel of S. Jerome, 
                              Leonor of S. Gabriel, and 
                              Anne of S. Albert. 
                                     The last was not to remain
                                           in Seville, 
                                     for the Saint intended her to be
                                           the prioress of Caravaca 
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                             Foot note #10]
                                    "and Father Mariano begged some 
                                           for furnishing the house; 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #11 ]


      St. Teresa is delayed and waits in Beas: 
      St. Teresa was delayed 
           at the Foundation at Beas  (Veas),  
       while she awaited the arrangements
           for a foundation in Caravaca.
                        "they obtained the licence 
                         for making a foundation in Caravaca, 
                         but (the license)  was not such 
                         as I required for my purpose; 
                         ....thus it became necessary
                         to apply to the court again"
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #2 ]
                         ( According to Ch. 24: Foot note #6,
                            the account of the foundation 
                                at Caravaca
                            is provided in chapter 27. )

            Beas de Segura is a municipality 
               in the Province of Jaen
            Beas is in the southern part of Spain
            It  lies central to Caravaca and Seville.
            Caravaca de la Cruz is a municipality
               in the province of Murcia
               in southeastern Spain.
            It is east of Beas de Segura.
            Sevilla is a  municipality 
                within the province of Seville.
             It  lies west of  Beas to the south.            
                        "It was very inconvenient for me
                              to remain there so long, 
                          and I wished to return to Castille; 
                         but...Father Fray Jerome, 
                           (who)  was there at the time...
                         thought that if I were once gone 
                           there would be an end 
                           of the foundation of Caravaca"     
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #2 ]

   Fr. Jerome envisions a Foundation for Seville
                         "Father Fray Jerome, 
                          ...was commissary over
                               the whole province of Castille  
                              was there at the time, 
                         ...I could do nothing 
                               without his consent... 
                         He thought      
                          that it would be greatly 
                               for the service of God 
                          to found a house in Seville"
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #2 ]

                   "Fray Jerome...commanded the Saint
                              to ask our Lord 
                          whether the foundation 
                                    in Madrid 
                                    or that in Seville 
                              should be the next. 
                          The Saint obeyed, 
                              and the answer was Madrid. 
                          Thereupon Fray Jerome bade her 
                              prepare for that of Seville
                           and the Saint began at once 
                              to make her arrangements."
                                             [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note #8 ]
                         "when I saw 
                             that it was the will of my superior 
                           I  yielded at once, 
                             for our Lord has given me the grace 
                           to think that my superiors 
                              are always in the right. 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #2 ] 
                           ...Fray Jerome asked her 
                           why she obeyed 
                                      rather than our Lord, 
                           Who had revealed to her 
                            that He wished her to go to Madrid. 
                            She replied that
                               - she could not be so sure 
                                       of any revelation 
                               - she was of his (Carmelite) Order...
                                  it was her duty to obey him 
                                     as her immediate superior. 
                            He ordered her to pray once more, 
                            and then our Lord bade her
                                go to Seville." 
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note #8 ]

  The Difficulties of the Journey
      Lengthy Journey and preparations
                          "The Saint leaves Veas for Seville"
                              ( east through Cardoba) 
                          "intended to leave Veas 
                                16th May 1575, 
                            but did so only on the 18th
                                Wednesday before Pentecost, 
                                                [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note #10 ]

                          "We made all haste we could, 
                                yet we reached Seville 
                            only on the Thursday                          
                                before the feast 
                                of the Most Holy Trinity, 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #3 ]
                           26th May 1575. 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note #12 ]
      The Heat of  the journey
                          "...suffered on the road 
                               from the heat, 
                           which was  very great; 
                  the sun in its strength 
                               struck the carriages, 
                           to go into them 
                               was like going into Purgatory. 
                                  [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #3 ]
                          "the heat there 
                               is not like that of Castille, 
                            being much more oppressive."
                                  [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #4 ]
      The hazardous travel      
                     "Risk in crossing a river. 
                 slight danger 
                          when crossing the Guadalquivir 
                                in a boat.      
                          When they had to ferry
                               the carriages across 
                          ...those who held the rope 
                             either let it go 
                             or lost it, 
                          ...and the boat went off                           
                             with the carriages 
                                  away from the rope 
                             and without oars, 
                          ...with all their might 
                             were holding on to it; 
                          the force of the current, however, 
                             was too much for them,  and
                           some...were even thrown down..."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #6 ]
                          "We should have found it 
                              very hard to recover our road, 
                            because it was now night, 
                            if  one who had come 
                               from the castle 
                             had not become our guide. 
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #6 ]
                          "the six sisters who were with me 
                             had such courage"
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #3 ]
                          Further on in the journey
                          "...the carriages could not pass 
                                through the gate of the bridge; 
                           it was found necessary 
                                to use the saw..."
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #7 ]
                          "One day before Pentecost 
                            into a very violent fever....

                            It was so violent 
                            that I seem to have fallen
                                into a lethargy, 
                            so unconscious was I. 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #4 ]

                           "a very violent pain in one side, 
                     changing my (position)...
                             I had another pain as violent 
                                 in the other: 

                            It was the good pleasure 
                                 of our Lord 
                            that its extreme violence 
                                 did not last more than one day."
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #5 ]
       Poor shelter 
                          "I cannot help telling you 
                                of the poor lodging 
                            we had in this our need; 
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #4 ]
                           "they gave us a small room 
                                like a shed, 
                            which had no window"
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #4 ]
                          "there was no place near 
                           where we could take our rest 
                               at noon: 
                            we found it under a  bridge."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #8 ]

  Eventually obtaining the Archbishop's consent
                    "Don Christobal de Rojas y Sandoval
                      ...was promoted to the archbishopric...
                          of Seville (1571). 
                                            [ Foundations: Ch. 24:
                                                            Foot note  #9 ]

      The necessity of  the Bishop's permission
                     "for in founding 
                               the other monasteries 
                            the first thing I sought 
                               was the sanction of the ordinary
                            according to the decree 
                                of the council."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9 ]
                       Council of Trent: Session 25
                              On Regulars And Nuns 
                            Seventh Decree; Chapter 3

                          "nor shall any such places
                                  be henceforth erected, 
                            without the permission 
                           of the bishop
                            in whose diocese they are 
                                  to be erected, 
                            being first obtained."
                                  [ based on Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                      Foot note  #19 ]

       Presumption of the Archbishop's approval 
           It seemed that the Fathers anticipated
              the approval of the Archbishop 
           because of his previous good relationship
              with the Discalced Carmelites.
           Father Mariano had even obtained a house
               prior to the arrival of  St. Teresa and
               prior to the obtaining 
                   of  the authorization of the Archbishop,
               with the expectation 
                   of his favor and endorsement.
                         "we not only took it for granted 
                           but looked on the monastery 
                                 as a great service done 
                              to the archbishop, 
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9 ]
                          "The Archbishop of Seville, too,                
                                was so well disposed 
                                       towards the order 
                             that he (Fr Jerome)  believed 
                                 he would be greatly pleased
                             and accordingly it was agreed 
                              that the prioress and the nuns... 
                                     should go to Seville. 
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #2 ]
                          "...the Father Commissary 
                               and Father Mariano, 
                           most fully persuaded 
                             - that he would give it, 
                             - that my coming would be 
                                  a very great pleasure to him, 
                             - that they were doing him 
                                   a very great service 
                                        in bringing me, 
                               said nothing to him beforehand, 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9 ]

          St. Teresa, herself,  was unaware 
              of the failure to obtain the authorization:

                          "I thought everything was done; 
                            for...the archbishop 
                                was very favourable 
                             to the barefooted Carmelites, 
                             and had occasionally written 
                                 to myself 
                             showing me great affection..."    
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9]

  Lack of Permission of the Archbishop

                         "Having  reached the house 
                              hired for us...
                           I meant to take possession at once, 
                              as I was in the habit of doing,
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #10 ]
                         "but Father Mariano  
                              began to suggest delay...
                         I saw where the difficulty lay
                         — no permission had been given"
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #10 ]

            ▪ The Archbishop's Perspective
                         "At last (Fr. Mariano) told me
                         - that the archbishop was not disposed 
                              to sanction a monastery of nuns 
                         - that he had never sanctioned one 
                              since he became archbishop, 
                            nor even during the many years
                              he had been here and in Cordova, 
                              great servant of God as he is; 
                         - still less would he sanction 
                             a monastery founded in poverty, 
                                  [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #10 ]
                         "The archbishop is a great enemy 
                              of all monasteries of nuns 
                           founded in poverty, 
                              and he has his reasons."
                                    [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9 ]
                         "The archbishop wished the nuns 
                              to come to Seville from the first, 
                           but he did not wish them 
                              to have a separate monastery 
                           of their own order. 
                           His purpose was to distribute them 
                              among the several monasteries 
                                   within his jurisdiction, 
                            in order that by their fervour 
                                    and good example 
                            those monasteries might 
                               be reformed and made better."
                                                 [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                             Foot note #22 ]

  St. Teresa's  Perspective
         From this chapter, it seems  that 
          St.Teresa did not initiate
           the preparations and  arrangements 
              for the foundation at Seville.
         But she did express her perspective 
             on some issues as they arose:
         ▪ Would the foundation at Seville, 
                 be an endowed convent ?
                   "Father Mariano...asked me 
                          to allow the monastery 
                              to be endowed...           
                          At last he told me
                          - that the arch-bishop 
                                 was not disposed 
                             to sanction a monastery of nuns...
                          - still less would he sanction 
                              a monastery founded in poverty"
                                     [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #10 ]

                     St. Teresa wrote that:
                         She had founded 
                               endowed convents in the past
                          only "because there were 
                           no other means of sustaining them
                         "in those parts of the country... 
                           in small villages 
                           where they must have been 
                                so founded, 
                                or not at all"
                           ( foundations  which required  
                              an endowment because
                              of  the poverty of the people
                              or the distance from resources. )
                          But, in the case of Seville, she wrote,
                         "it would have been very sad for me
                              to do this in the city of  Seville"
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #11 ]
         ▪ Regarding  the fact that  
               the Archbishop was not advised and
               his permission was not obtained
            before arranging for the house in 
                and trip to Seville
                         St. Teresa wrote:
                         "for if they had told him all 
                              before I had set out on my journey 
                           I am certain he never would
                              have given his consent. 
                           they might have committed 
                               a great mistake 
                           if they had told him,
                               thinking they were doing right"
                                          [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9 ]
          ▪ Regarding her distress at the lack 
                  of the Archbishop's permission

                         "The sources of that pain...
                           were not in anything I or my nuns 
                                  had to suffer, 
                            but in the distress 
                                  of the Father-Commissary,
                            who was much afflicted 
                             because he had ordered me 
                                  to go thither"
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #13 ]

   The Archbishop finally Consents
         It seems the Archbishop did allow
             the first Mass to be said
          at the house by his Chaplain

                          "The archbishop allowed us, 
                              but it must have been 
                                after urgent pressing 
                                on the part of  Father Mariano, 
                            to have Mass said" 
                                    [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #12 ]

        but he did not give authorization 
        to the establishment of the convent at first.  

                         "Father  Mariano would never 
                                let me write to the archbishop, 
                           but he won him over 
                                by degrees himself, 
                                by the help of  letters 
                                   of the Father-Commissary 
                                         from Madrid. 
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #12 ]

                          "It pleased God at last
                                that he came to see us, 
                            when I spoke to him 
                                of the harm he was doing us.
                            In the end he told me to do 
                                what I liked, 
                                as I liked"
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #14 ]

                          "... the monastery 
                          a great service done to the archbishop
                               as indeed it was, 
                          and as he acknowledged afterwards" 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 24: #9 ]


           End of  the Discussion 
                   of Chapter 24 
                         of the 
            Book of the Foundations
                of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  

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