Tuesday, September 6, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Discussion of Chapter 23 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

       The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
     of the Order of our Lady of Carmel 
      Discussion of Chapter 23 

       Chapter 23 Contents
   Treats Of 
   - The Foundation 
       of the Monastery
       of the Glorious S. Joseph Of Carmel 
       in The City Of Seville. 
   - The First Mass Said on the Feast 
       of The Most Holy Trinity,     1575 
   1. The Saint becomes acquainted with
       Fray Jerome of the Mother of  God. — 
   2. His early education. — 
   3. Fray Juan of Jesus. — 
   4. Occasion of 
       Fray Jerome's conversion. — 
   5. His devotion to our Lady. — 
   6. Who protected him. — 
   7. The prioress of Pastrana suggests 
        to him to become a friar. — 
   8. The nuns pray for his vocation. — 
   9. And obtain it. — 
 10. Trials of the novitiate. — 
 11. Temptation to quit the Order. — 
 12. The great help he was to the Saint. — 
 13. Difficulties about the monasteries 
        of the friars. 
      Discussion of Chapter 23 
       The chapter headings of Chapters 
            23, 24, 25, and 26
       refer to  the foundation at Seville
             ( 29th May 1575).
     This chapter,  however, does not
         include the account of Seville.
      It  describes Fr. Jerome Gratian, 
         Fr. Jerome of the Mother of God.
  Fr. Jerome Gratian 
        He became a Carmelite Friar of the Reform
        He received the Carmelite habit at Pastrana 
        St. Teresa first met him in Beas 

        His work for the Carmelite Order 
               and the Reform
       His Carmelite Vocation and 
        His Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary

   Fr. Jerome Gratian 
        ▪  "He received his first education 
                 at the Jesuit College at Madrid, 
              went to the university 
                 of Alcala de Henares in 1560, 
               took the degree of Master in divinity 
                  in 1564."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 23:
                                                          Foot note #2 ]
        ▪   "and was ordained priest in 1569."
                                         [ Foundations: Ch. 23: 
                                                          Foot note #2 ] 
        ▪   "When he had taken his doctor's degree 
                he wished to enter the Society of Jesus, 
              and was accepted, 
                but...was required to wait..."
                                   [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #2 ] 

 He became a Carmelite Friar of the Reform

                "Gratian took great pleasure
                    in learning everything 
                         about the  (Carmelite) order 
                    in consulting weighty authors 
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #3 ]

                "Jerome Gratian, 
                    then a secular priest,
                 preach a sermon in which he spoke 
                    of the antiquity of the (Carmelite) order, 
                    of the many saints it had given 
                              to the church of God".
                                  [ Foundations: Ch. 23: 
                                                            Foot note: #3 ]
        ▪   " The prioress of Pastrana suggests 
                       to him to become a friar"

                "Arrived in Pastrana, 
                       he went to speak to the prioress             
                about the reception of the nun 
                       who was to take the habit"
                                       [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #7 ]
               "...he was asked to go to Pastrana 
                  to make arrangements with the prioress 
                      of the monastery of our order...
                          about the reception of a nun. 
                              [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #4 ]
                   The prioress was
                           "Isabel of S. Dominic,"
                                             [ Foundations: Ch. 23: 
                                                            Foot note: #5 ]
                  "the prioress told him 
                        to pray to our Lord 
                  that he might enter the order himself."
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #7 ]
                   "It was with the prioress...         
                   she felt an immense desire 
                          that he should enter the order"
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #8 ]
                  "When Father Gratian went 
                        to the monastery of  the friars, 
                    and beheld 
                        - so much devotion and good will
                              in the service of our Lord, 
                                      and above all 
                       - that this was the order 
                        of His glorious Mother
                          whom he so earnestly 
                                       desired to serve, 
                              his heart began to be moved, 
                              he had no wish to return 
                                        to the world"
                   He "...determined to 
                          become the subject of the Virgin, 
                           put on her habit"   
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #9 ]

    He received the Carmelite habit at Pastrana 
                              (25th March 1572)."
                   "Fray Jerome took the habit, 
                         without returning to Alcala, 
                    on the feast of the Annunciation, 
                             25th March 1572, 
                    and was professed 
                             28th March 1573. 
                                           [ Foundations: Ch. 23: 
                                                            Foot note: #8 ]

      St. Teresa first met him in Beas 
                  "He came to Veas in April, 1575" 
                      [ Foundations: Ch. 23: 
                                                            Foot note: #2 ]

                  "When I was staying 
                           in the town of Veas...                        
                     there came to see me 
                       a father of our order, 
                       a barefooted friar, 
                      by name, the master Fray Jerome 
                       of the Mother of God Gratian,       
                     who, living in Alcala 
                          a few years before, 
                        had taken our habit."
                                        [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #1 ]

                   (Although according to chapter 24, 
                    it seems she had had prior 
                        communications with him by letters. ) 

  His Work for the Carmelite Order 
               and the Reform
             "he was employed in the 
                   administration and organisation 
                 of the Reform, 
                   by which work he was able, 
                        more than anyone else, 
                   to second the designs and intentions 
                       of the Saint (Teresa)"
                              [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note: #2 ]
             "Our Lord sent the father-master 
                    Fray Jerome of the Mother of God
                             to our relief, 
                  for he was made commissary apostolic   
                     and had to rule and govern 
                   both the friars and the nuns 
                      of the barefooted Carmelites. 
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #13 ]
                  and on the 4th of August following 
                          (in 1573)
                       was created visitor of Andalucia 
                  by Fray Baltasar of Jesus
                        prior of Pastrana, 
                  acting under the authority 
                       of Fray Francis de Vargas, 
                           Dominican and apostolic visitor 
                            of the Carmelites in Andalucia."     
                                               [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                            Foot note: #1 ]
                 "The nuncio, Monsignor Ormaneto, 
                       in 1575 
                   made Fray Jerome, 
                       superior of the Carmelites 
                          in Spain, 
                   and accordingly in his visitation 
                       in that year 
                   the constitutions were made 
                      which Fray Jerome 
                            gave to the friars to observe. 
                                             [ Foundations: Ch. 24: 
                                                        Foot note: #14 ]

 His Carmelite Vocation and 
   His Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary
              "the Virgin, our Lady, 
                      to whom he is extremely devout, 
                   would reward him 
                      by giving him her habit
                   and so I think 
                       that she interceded 
                               with God for him, 
                       and obtained for him that grace. 
                   The cause 
                         even of his taking the habit
                         of  his being so devoted 
                                to the order, 
               was this glorious Virgin
                   who would not (allow)
                       that one who longed so earnestly
                    to serve her 
                       should be without the means 
                                 of doing so; 
                    for she is wont to help those 
                        who wish to place themselves 
                             under her protection."
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #4 ]
                    "As a boy in Madrid 
                      he used often to go 
                         to an image of our Lady 
                      to which he had a great devotion... 
                      He used to address her as his love...
                       She must have obtained 
                           from her Son for him 
                       that purity in which he always lived. 
                       He says 
                            that he saw her eyes sometimes...    
                                 filled with tears 
                        over the many offences committed 
                                 against her Son. 
                       That made him very eager and earnest 
                            for the salvation of souls, 
                        and gave him a sense of pain 
                            whenever he saw people sin 
                                   against God.
                        So greatly is he 
                             under the dominion of this desire 
                        for the salvation of souls 
                        that he regards all troubles as nothing 
                        if he thinks he can 
                               do any good thereby."  
                                 [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #5 ]
                       "The Virgin then brought him
                                to Pastrana,
                         he being all the while 
                                under a mistake, 
                         for he thought 
                         he was going thither 
                              to obtain the habit for a nun, 
                         God was leading him thither 
                             to take it himself. 
                         Oh, the secrets of God ! 
                         How, without our seeking,
                         He goeth about preparing us 
                              for His graces, 
                         how He rewarded this soul 
                              for the good works it had done, 
                              for the good example 
                                   it had always given,   
                              for its earnest desire to serve 
                                    His glorious Mother ! 
                          for His Majesty must ever 
                                    repay this desire 
                                    with exceeding great rewards"
                                      [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #6 ]

                          "The first time 
                                he made his visitation 
                            he ordered everything 
                                so wisely and so well, 
                            thereby showing plainly 
                            that His Divine Majesty 
                                was keeping him,
                            that our Lady had chosen him 
                                 to be a succour of her order; 
                            and I pray her earnestly 
                                 to obtain from her Son 
                            help for him always, 
                           the  grace to advance 
                               more and more 
                           in His service.  
                               [ Foundations: Ch. 23: #13 ]

            End of  the Discussion 
                   of Chapter 23 
                         of the 
            Book of the Foundations
                of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  

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