Friday, September 23, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Chapter 28 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

      The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
 of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  
          CHAPTER 28         XXVIII

            Chapter 28     Contents
   The Foundation 
      of   Villanueva De La Jara 
   1. Troubles of the Order. — 
   2. And of the Saint. — 
   3. The new nuncio. — 
   4. His severities. — 
   5. Fray Pedro Fernandez. — 
   6. Prayers for the king. — 
   7. Villanueva de la Jara. — 
   8. The Saint's hesitation. — 
   9. Counselled not to refuse 
         the foundation. — 
 10. The Saint importuned anew. — 
 11. But still hesitates. — 
 12. Other reasons for hesitation. — 
 13. A divine locution. — 
 14. She chooses the nuns 
         for the new foundation. — 
 15. She departs from Malagon. — 
 16. Courage. — 
 17. Arrival at the monastery 
          of La Roda. — 
 18. Dona Catalina de Cardona.— 
 19. Her strange vocation. — 
 20. Becomes a hermit. — 
 21. Her simplicity. — 
 22. Severity of her hermit life.- — 
 23. Tormented by Satan. — 
 24. She makes preparations 
          for founding a monastery. — 
 25. A vision 
          of Fray Ambrosio Mariano. — 
 26. She returns to Madrid. — 
 27. Her death and burial. — 
 28. Dona Catalina wished to remove
           to a more distant place. — 
 29. The Saint's reverence 
           for Dona Catalina. — 
 30 Who appeared to her in a vision. — 
 31. The Saint reaches Villanueva, 
            21st February 1580.  — 
 32. Is received with great rejoicing. — 
 33. Her humility. — 
 34. Penitential life in the house 
            of S. Anne. —
 35. Piety of the recluses of S. Anne. — 
 36. Their devotions. — 
 37. The vocation of  a Carmelite. — 
 38. Origin of the hermitage of S. Anne. 
          CHAPTER 28
    The Foundation 
    of   Villanueva De La Jara 
1. Troubles of the Order.  
When the foundation in Seville 
   had been made 
no other foundations were made 
   for more than four years; 
the reason was 
    that great persecutions             [1]  
      of the friars   and  nuns 
   arose all at once, 
so that the order was 
    on the brink of ruin, 
 and, though there had been 
     persecutions enough before,
none had been so severe. 
Satan showed clearly 
   what he thought of the blessed beginning
 which our Lord had made, 
   and that he felt it to be His work, 
       seeing that it prospered. 
The friars suffered much, 
   especially the foremost among them, 
   - the false accusations 
          brought against them, 
   - the opposition made to them 
        by nearly all the fathers 
      of the mitigation. 
The most reverend our father general,
    though a most saintly man, and
    though he had given authority  
         for the foundation of all the monasteries
       except the first, 
         that of S. Joseph in Avila, 
           made by authority of the Pope, 
  was influenced by the fathers 
       of the mitigation 
   that he would allow no more friars 
       of the primitive observance; 
  nevertheless he was always friendly
       to the monasteries of the nuns. 
   2. And of the Saint. 
Now, because I had helped herein, 
  he was made to show his displeasure 
     against me, 
and that was the greatest trouble 
   I had to bear 
while making these foundations, 
   and I had to bear many; 
for to give up helping 
    in the furtherance of this work, 
        which I saw clearly was for
           - the service of our Lord 
           - the advancement of our order, 
  men of the highest learning, 
           to whom I confessed, 
           by whom I was advised, 
   would not allow me; 
   and then to go against 
     what I saw was the will of my superior 
           was a very death, 
     for, beside my obligation as his subject, 
           I had a most tender affection for him, 
     and it was justly due to him. 
The truth is 
   I wished to please him herein, 
but I could not, 
because I was under visitors apostolic, 
   whom I was bound to obey. 
   3. The new nuncio.  
A saintly nuncio  died,                           [2]
who greatly encouraged 
    every thing that was good, 
who therefore had  a great respect
   for the barefooted friars. 
Another came,                                        [3]
  whom God seemed to have sent 
for the purpose of trying us
     by sufferings;                                     [4]

he was in some way related to the Pope, 
   and must have been 
        a great servant of God, 
   but he began by favouring very much 
         the friars of the mitigation.            [5]
The information 
         he received from them 
            concerning us 
   convinced him 
        that it was not right to go on 
            with what we had begun, 
and so he began to carry out his purpose 
   with the very greatest severity, 
censuring, imprisoning, and banishing  those
   who he thought                                       [6]
        might be able to withstand him. 
   4. His severities.  
They who had most to suffer  were 
   - the Father Fray Antonio of Jesus, 
         who began the first monastery of 
                 the barefooted Carmelites, 
  -  the Father Fray Jerome Gratian, 
          whom the late nuncio had made 
              visitor apostolic 
          of those of the mitigation; 
  against him and 
     - the Father Mariano of S. Benedict 
            his displeasure was great                 [7] 
I have already said 
   who those fathers were 
in writing of the previous foundations: 
  others, too, of the more grave fathers 
      he put in penance, 
    though not so severely. 
Upon these he laid strict injunctions 
   that they were to meddle 
with none of our affairs. 
It was plain 
   that all this came from God, 
   that His Majesty allowed it 
     for a greater good, and 
     for the clearer manifestation 
            of the goodness of these fathers, 
     as indeed it was. 
He made a father of the mitigation 
    our superior, 
who was to visit our monasteries 
    of nuns and friars.                               [8] 
If he had found 
    what he expected 
        we should have been in serious Straits, 
we had accordingly very much to suffer, 
   as will be told by one 
who is more able 
   than I am to write. 
I do but touch the matter, 
that the nuns 
         who shall come after us 
   may know how great 
           are their obligations 
   to make progress in perfection 
     when they find
           that (which is) made easy to them 
           which has cost so much to us 
                   who are now alive. 
Some of them suffered in those days 
    from false accusations, 
which distressed me much more 
   than anything I had to suffer myself; 
     for that on the contrary, 
         was a great delight to me. 
I considered myself 
   as the cause of the whole tempest, 
and if they had thrown me 
   into the sea with Jonas
 the storm would have ceased,            [9] 
Praised be God who helps the truth, 
   and so He did at this time ; 
for, as soon as our Catholic king, Don Philip
     knew what was going on, and 
     learnt how the barefooted Carmelites 
           lived and kept their rule, 
 he took our cause into his own hands, 
   and would have the nuncio 
     not to be the sole judge of it, 
   but assigned four grave persons, 
     three of  whom were religious, 
       to be his assistants, 
   in order that justice might be really done us. 
   5. Fray Pedro Fernandez. 
One of these was the Father Master 
      Fray Pedro Fernandez
  a man of most saintly life, 
     very learned and able. 
He had been apostolic commissary and visitor
   of the fathers of the mitigation 
   of the province of Castille, 
and we,  also of the primitive rule, 
   were subject to him. 
He knew well and truly 
   how both the one and the other 
        were living, 
 for we all wished for nothing 
 but the making known our way of life. 
Then, when I saw 
  that the king had named him, 
I looked on the matter as settled,           [11]
  as, by the goodness of God, 
it is. 
May His Majesty grant it to be 
   for His honour and glory ! 
Though the noblemen of the realm 
 and the bishops who took great pains 
         to put the truth before the nuncio 
    were many in number, 
yet it would all have been to little purpose 
    if God had not made use of the king. 
   6. Prayers for the king. — 
We are under very great obligations, 
 my sisters, all of us, 
  to remember him 
       in our prayers to our Lord
together with those                               [12]
   who undertook 
           His cause and 
           that of our Lady the Virgin, 
and so I earnestly recommend you to do so. 
You will understand now, my sisters, 
what opportunity there was 
     for making foundations; 
we were all intent 
     on prayer and penance  without ceasing, 
     begging God to prosper 
             our foundations already made, 
     if they were for His service. 
   7. Villanueva de la Jara. 
In the beginning of these great troubles,
         which thus briefly told 
                 may seem to you slight, and 
         which long endured 
                 were heavy, 
 there came to me in Toledo 
        in the year 1576,                               [13]
             whither I had gone 
        from making the foundation in Seville,
   an ecclesiastic                                         
           from Villanueva de la Jara 
           with letters from the municipality. 
The purport was to arrange with me 
    for the receiving into a monastery 
         nine women,                                    [14] 
   who were living together 
in a hermitage  of the glorious S. Anne, 
    which was in the neighbourhood. 
They had lived some years 
     in a small house close by it, 
     in such recollectedness and holiness
 that the whole population was moved 
     to make an effort to fulfil their desire, 
           which was that of beine nuns. 
I received a letter also from a doctor, 
    the parish priest of the place, 
        Agustin de Ervias,                          [15]
     a learned and good man, 
and it was his great goodness 
   that made him help,
 so far as he could, 
    in this holy work. 
   8. The Saint's hesitation.  
As for myself, 
 I thought
     it was wholly out of the question 
 that I should accept the monastery,
    for these reasons: —
    1. Because they whom I was to accept 
           were so many, and 
         because I considered
           it would be a very difficult thing 
         to train in our way those 
           who had been accustomed 
                  to live in their own. 
    2. Because they had scarcely 
            any means of subsistence, and 
          the place has hardly 
            more than a thousand inhabitants, 
          which would furnish but scanty help 
            to those who have to live on alms: 
          though the municipality did offer
            to maintain them, 
          I did not think that was to be relied on. 
   3. They had no house. 
   4. They were far away 
            from the other monasteries. 
   And, though I was told 
        they were very good, 
   yet as I had not seen them 
        I could not know 
          whether they had those gifts 
        which we claim for our monasteries, 
  and so I made up my mind 
         to a thorough refusal. 
   9. Counselled not to refuse 
         the foundation.  
To do this I must first speak
      to my confessor, 
      the Doctor Velasquez
         canon and professor in Toledo,        [16] 
         a most learned and excellent man, 
         now bishop of Osma; 
  for I am in the habit 
       of never doing anything 
             of my own will, 
             but only at the will of persons 
       such as he is. 
When he 
     saw the letters and 
     understood the matter 
   he bade me not to refuse, 
        but to answer kindly; 
for if God made so many hearts agree 
     together on a thing 
it was plain He intended to be served thereby. 
I did so, 
  for I neither accepted nor refused absolutely.
 Time passed on 
         in importuning me and 
         in searching out those 
     who might persuade me to accept, 
till this year 1580, 
  I,  all the while, thinking it folly to do so. 
When I made any reply 
I never could reply altogether unfavourably. 
 10. The Saint importuned anew.  

The Father Fray Antonio ot Jesus 
  happened to come to the monastery 
      of our Lady of Succour, 
which lies three leagues 
    from the town of Villanueva, 
there to finish the term of his banishment.
He used to go and preach there, 
and the prior of the monastery, 
   who at this time is the Father 
      Fray Gabriel of the Assumption,     [18]
   a most prudent man and servant of God,  
      went also frequently to the same place, 
   for they were friends of  Doctor Ervias, 
     and began an acquaintance  
         with these saintly sisters. 
Attracted by their goodness, and 
persuaded by the people and the doctor, 
        took up the  matter 
              as if it was their own, 
        began to persuade me, 
              writing very earnest letters; 
and when I was in S. Joseph's in Malagon,
             which is twenty-six leagues 
             and further from Villanueva,
   the father prior himself came
             to speak to me on the subject. 
He told me 
      how it could be done, and 
      that, the monastery once founded,
            the Doctor Ervias would endow it 
                 with three hundred ducats a year
            out of the revenues 
                  of the living he held; 
      that leave to do so could be had 
                 from Rome.                               [19] 
11. But still hesitates.   
This seemed to me very uncertain, 
   for I thought 
it might fail us 
   after the foundation was made, 
yet with the little 
    which the sisters possessed 
it might be well enough, 
and so I gave many reasons, 
      and in my opinion 
           they were sufficient, 
      to the father prior, 
           to make him see 
 that it would never do 
      to accept the monastery; 
I said further 
    - that he must look well to it, 
              he and Father  Antonio; 
    -  that I left it on their conscience, 
          thinking that 
             what I had told them 
          was enough to stop the matter. 
When he had left I 
   reflected on his great earnestness, 
   thought he might prevail 
          on Fray Angel de Salazar, 
          our present superior, 
      to accept the monastery; 
and so I wrote to Fray Angel immediately,
   begging him not to grant his permission, 
   telling him my reasons 
        at the same time. 
He wrote to me afterwards to say 
   he would not have granted it 
unless I wished it myself. 
 12. Other reasons for hesitation. 
Six weeks, perhaps more, passed away; 
When I  was now thinking 
     I had put a stop to it 
they sent me a messenger 
     with very pressing letters 
from the two fathers, 
   as well as from the municipality, 
by which they bound themselves
     to furnish whatever was necessary; 
Doctor Ervlas, too, 
    undertaking to perform 
what I spoke of before. 
My dread of receiving these sisters
   was very great; 
I thought they would be a faction
   banded together  against the sisters 
         whom I might take thither, 
   as it usually happens, 
    and also 
because I saw no certain means 
    of maintenance for them, 
for that which was offered 
   was not such as I was bound to accept: 
so I was in great doubt. 
Afterwards I saw 
    it was the work of Satan, 
for, though our Lord had given me courage, 
   I was then so faint of heart 
that I seemed to have 
    no trust in God at all. 
The prayers, however,  of those blessed souls
 13. A divine locution.  
One day after communion, 
  while I was commending the matter to God, 
as I was often doing 
 — for the reason 
          why I answered favourably before 
      was the fear I had 
        (that) I might be hindering 
            the progress of some souls, 
       for my desire ever is 
            - to help in any way 
                 to advance the glory of our Lord 
            - to increase the number 
                 of  His servants — 
His Majesty rebuked me severely, 
"Where was the treasury 
    that supplied the means 
 for the foundations already made ? "
I was to accept the house 
   without any misgiving: 
it would be greatly 
   to His honour and the progress of souls. 
So mighty are the words of God, 
        not only enter the understanding, 
        but also enlighten it to
            - see the truth 
            - make the will ready to act: 
so it was with me, 
  for I was 
       not only glad to accept the monastery, 
       but felt that I had been to blame 
           for holding back so long, and 
           clinging so much 
                to human considerations, 
      seeing that His Majesty had done so much
          for our holy (Carmelite) Order
      in ways undiscoverable by reason. 
 14. She chooses the nuns 
         for the new foundation.  
Having resolved to accept the foundation, 
  I thought it right to go thither myself 
     with the nuns who  were to remain there,   
    and that for many reasons 
          which suggested themselves, 
    though very much against my inclination, 
          for I was very ill 
               when I came to Malagon,        [20]
          was so still. 
But, thinking I should please our Lord 
   by going, 
I wrote to the superior in order
   that he might command 
as he should judge best. 
He sent the licence 
    for the foundation, 
with an order for me 
    to go there myself, 
    to take with me 
         the nuns I preferred,                     [21]
        which made me very anxious 
             because they would have to live
        with those who were there already. 
Earnestly commending the matter
      to our Lord, 
I took two nuns out 
    of  the monastery of S. Joseph in Toledo, 
    one of whom was to be prioress, 
    two out of that at Malagon,
        one to be sub-prioress; 
 and, as we had prayed so much 
      to our Lord, 
 the choice could not have been better, 
     which gave me no slight pleasure, 
for in the foundations begun 
   with nuns only from our monasteries 
everything falls happily into its own place. 
 15. She departs from Malagon. — 
The father Fray Antonio of Jesus 
  and the father prior 
       Fray Gabriel of the Assumption 
    came to fetch us.                                [23]
The city having furnished everything, 
   we left Malagon 
        on the Saturday before Lent, 
         13th February 1580
It was the pleasure of God to send 
   (to) us 
              such fine weather, 
   to me 
              such health
      that I seemed as if I had never been ill. 
I was amazed, and considered 
  how important it is for us 
        never to think of our own infirmities 
when we are employed 
        in the service of our Lord, 
 whatever the difficulties before us may be, 
        seeing that He is able to make 
           the weak strong and
           the sickly healthy; 
should He not do so 
   it will be better for our soul 
if we suffer and forget ourselves 
   with our eyes fixed 
on His honour and glory. 
Why are life and health given to us 
but to be lost for so grand a King and Lord ? 
Believe me, my sisters, 
no harm will ever befall you 
   if you travel on this road. 
 16. Courage.  

I confess myself
that my wickedness and weakness 
   have put me very often 
         in fear and doubt, 
but I cannot call to mind any occasion 
   since our Lord gave me 
       the habit of a barefooted Carmelite, 
   nor for some years before, 
       in which, of His mere compassion,
  He did not enable me by His grace 
       to overcome these temptations, 
       to venture upon that, 
                 however difficult it might be, 
           which I understood to be 
                 for His greater glory.
I see clearly that 
        what I did myself 
                was very little, 
but God asks no more 
         than a resolution of this kind 
                 to do everything Himself
May He be blessed and praised for ever ! Amen. 
17. Arrival at the monastery 
          of La Roda. 
We had to go to the monastery 
   of our Lady of  Succour, 
        already spoken of,                           [24]
   which is three leagues from Villanueva, 
    and halt there to give warning 
          of our  arrival, 
    for so it had been settled, 
    and it was only reasonable 
    I should in everything obey the fathers 
        with whom we came. 
The monastery stands in a desert 
    and most pleasing solitude, 
and when we drew near 
   the friars came forth in great orderliness 
to receive their prior; 
as they advanced barefooted 
     in their coarse cloaks of serge 
they moved all 
     to devotion, 
and I was melted at the sight exceedingly, 
  for I thought I was living 
in the flourishing age of our holy fathers. 
On that plain 
they looked as white fragrant flowers, 
    and so I believe they are 
       in the eyes of God, 
    for in my opinion 
        He is most truly served there. 
They went into the church 
     singing Te Deum 
in a voice that betrayed their mortified lives. 
The church is entered underground 
    as through a cave, 
which figured that of our father Elias. 
Certainly I went in 
    with so much inward joy 
that I would have looked on 
   a much longer journey as profitably made, 
 though I was very sorry 
   for the death of the saint
 by whom our Lord founded the house; 
I did not deserve to see her 
  though I  desired it greatly. 
 18. Dona Catalina de Cardona. 
I think it will not be a waste of time 
  to say something in this place 
    - of her life, 
    - how it came to pass that our Lord 
        would have  the monastery founded 
             which, as I learn, 
        has been of so much advantage 
              to many souls 
        in the country round about. 
I do so that you, my sisters, 
    beholding the penance done by this saint, 
      - may see how far we are behind her, 
      - make efforts to serve our Lord 
          with renewed courage; 
for there is no reason 
 why we should do less than she did, 
seeing that we are not sprung 
   from so refined and noble a race, 
for, though this be of no consequence, 
   I speak of it because she once lived  
       in great comfort according to her rank, 
  for she 
      was a child  of the ducal house of Cardona,
     was known as Dona Catalina de Cardona
    When she had written to me 
         a certain number of times 
     she signed herself  simply 'The Sinner.' 
How she lived 
    before our Lord bestowed on her  
         graces so great 
    they will tell you 
          who shall write her life, 
    and more particularly the great things 
           that may be told of it: 
    lest it should not come to your knowledge, 
        I will tell you 
    what I have been told by certain persons 
       who have conversed with her, 
       who deserve to be believed. 
19. Her strange vocation.  
This holy woman, 
    while living among 
        great men and ladies of high rank,
    was always careful about her soul 
        and did penance. 
Her desire 
    of penance, and 
    of  withdrawing into a place 
          where in solitude she 
              could have the fruition of God 
              spend herself in doing penance 
                    undisturbed by others, 
 grew within her exceedingly. 
She spoke of it to her confessors, 
and they would not give their consent;
but, as 
  the world is now so very discreet, and 
  the great work of God 
         wrought in His saints, men and women,
          who serve Him in the deserts, 
     is almost forgotten, 
I am not surprised
   that they thought her desire foolish; 
but, as His Majesty never fails 
    to further true desires to their end, 
He so ordered it 
    that she went to confession 
      to a Franciscan friar. 
          Fray Francis de Torres,               [26] 
whom  I 
        knew very well and 
        look upon as a saint, 
  who many years ago gave himself 
       with great fervour to penance and prayer,
 and he had to endure much persecution. 
He must have been able,  if any, 
    to discern clearly 
       the graces God bestows on those 
    who strive to be the recipients of them, 
     and so he told her 
         she was not to hold back,
     but to obey the call of His Majesty. 
I do not know 
    whether these were his very words or not, 
but it is the substance of them,  
    for she immediately executed her purpose.  
 20. Becomes a hermit. 
She made herself known to a hermit         [28]
  who was in Alcala, 
and begged him to go with her, 
and never tell anybody. 
They came to the place 
   where the monastery stands; 
there she found a small cave, 
  which hardly held her, 
in which the hermit left her. 
But what love must she have had ! 
for she did 
   not think of any means of finding food, 
   nor of the dangers that might ensue, 
   nor of the evil speaking 
      that would result from her disappearance. 
Oh, how deeply must that holy soul 
    have drunk of the wine of God! 
So filled therewith was she 
   that she would have none to hinder her
 in the fruition of the Bridegroom, 
   so determined to love the world no more, 
   seeing that she thus ran away 
      from all its comforts. 
Let us 
  consider it well, my sisters, and mark 
       how she conquered it all at one blow; 
for, though what you do is not less 
     than what she did 
          when you enter this holy order  
          —  when you offer your will to God, 
                and promise such lifelong enclosure — 
perhaps the first fervours of some of us 
    pass away, 
and we become subject again in some things
    to our self-love. 
May His Divine Majesty grant 
    it be not so, and 
    that we 
               who already are followers 
                    of this holy woman 
               in seeking to escape from the world, 
        may be very far away from it 
               in everything in our hearts. 
 21. Her simplicity.  
I have heard many details 
   of the great austerity of her life, 
and only the least portion thereof 
   can be known; 
for during the many years 
    she dwelt in that solitude 
with such earnest desires of doing penance, 
and having no one to check her, 
   she must have treated her body fearfully. 
I will tell you 
  what some persons have 
          heard her say herself, 
   and among them 
          the nuns of  S. Joseph in Toledo, 
  when she went to see them. 
    She spoke openly 
          as if they were sisters, 
          and so she did to other persons; 
    for her simplicity was great, 
    her humility must have been so too. 
As she was one who knew 
  that she was nothing in herself, 
she was very far from vainglory, 
and had a pleasure in speaking  of the graces 
   which God bestowed upon her, 
that through them 
    His name might be praised and glorified. 
This is a dangerous proceeding for those 
   who have not reached her state, 
for it may seem in them, at least, 
    to be praise of self. 
Her openness and holy simplicity 
   must have saved her from that danger, 
for I never heard that this imperfection 
   was ever laid to her charge. 
 22. Severity of her hermit life. 

She said
that she had been eight years in that cave, 
   living for many days together 
       on the herbs of the field and 
       on roots; 
for when the three loaves were finished 
   which he who went with her to the cave
        left behind 
    she had nothing until a poor shepherd 
        came to the place:                           [29]
he supplied her afterwards 
   with bread and meal 
       — that was her food — 
   cakes baked on embers, and nothing else, 
      of which she partook once in three days. 
And it is most true, 
   as the friars too 
       who dwell there are witnesses; 
and at a later time, 
   when she was much wasted, 
they would make her occasionally 
    eat a sardine or something else, 
when she went about seeking means 
    to found a monastery; 
but she felt it do her more harm than good. 
As for wine, 
I never heard that she drank any. 
Her disciplines were inflicted 
   with a heavy chain, 
and frequently lasted two hours 
    and an hour and a half. 
The sackcloth she wore 
    was of the very coarsest kind, 
as I have learned from a certain person, 
    a woman who, returning from a pilgrimage, 
Stayed with her one night, 
    and, while feigning to be asleep, 
saw her take off her sackcloth full of blood 
    and wash it. 
 23. Tormented by Satan.  
What she had to bear from evil spirits 
    was still worse, 
as she told the nuns mentioned before; 
they appeared to her 
    as huge mastiffs, 
         leaping on her shoulders; 
    at other times 
         as serpents. 
She was not in the least afraid of them. 
After she had founded the monastery 
    she went still to the cave,
 lived and slept in it, 
and left it 
    only to be present at the divine office. 
Before that she went to mass 
   in a monastery of the Mercedarians,      [30]
        a quarter of a league distant, 
   and that sometimes on her knees. 
Her clothing was of kersey, 
   with a tunic of coarse cloth, 
and so fashioned 
   that the people thought she was a man. 
When those years were over 
   during which she lived so much alone 
it pleased our Lord 
    to make her known, 
    and people out of devotion 
          began to visit her in such crowds 
    as were more than she could bear. 
She spoke to all 
    with great charity and love. 
As time went on the people 
   thronged around her more and more, 
and he who could have speech of her
   thought much of it. 
She was so wearied herself 
  that she said they were killing her. 
There came a day 
  when the whole plain was full of carriages. 
Soon after the friars were established, 
  there was no help for it 
but they must raise her up on high 
  that she might give them her blessing, 
and in that way get rid of them. 
When she had been eight years in the cave
             — it was now larger in  size, 
                  for those who came to see her 
                        had made it so  —          [31]
she had a most serious illlness, 
  and thought she should die of  it; 
and all this took place in that cave. 
 24. She makes preparations 
          for founding a monastery.  

She began wishing for a monastery of friars 
   in that place, 
and did so for some time 
   not knowing to which order 
       it should belong. 
On one occasion 
   our Lord showed her 
        when she was in prayer before a crucifix
        which she always had with her, 
   a white mantle
   and she understood 
      it belonged to the barefooted Carmelites. 
She had never heard 
  that there were such friars in the world, 
and at that time only two monasteries 
    had been founded, 
      those of Mancera and Pastrana.         [32]
She must have obtained 
    the knowledge thereof 
after this; 
then, having learnt
   that there was a monastery in Pastrana, 
   and as she had been very friendly 
   in times past with the princess of Eboli, 
      wife of  prince Ruy Gomez, 
          to whom Pastrana belonged, 
   she set out for that place 
      to find how she could have 
          the monastery she desired.             [33] 
There, in the monastery of  S. Peter, 
   for that is its title, 
she took the habit of our Lady                 [34] 
     not, however, with the intention 
            of becoming a nun 
                 and making her profession, 
    for she never had any inclination 
            to be a nun,
    because our Lord was leading her 
           by another way; 
she thought 
  that if she were once under obedience
      they would thwart her in her purpose 
         of living austerely and in solitude. 
25. A vision  of Fray Ambrosio Mariano.  
In the presence of all the friars 
  she received the habit 
     of our Lady of Carmel.                     [35]
Father Mariano was there at the time. 
I have spoken of him before 
  in the story of these foundations,         [36]
and he told me myself 
   that he fell into a trance or rapture 
         and lost all consciousness, 
and saw while in that state 
       many friars and nuns lying dead; 
       some of them had their heads cut off, and
       others their limbs and arms, 
  as having suffered martyrdom ; 
       for that is the meaning: of the vision. 
He is 
   not a man to say 
        that he saw what he has not seen, 
   neither is he in the habit of falling 
        into a trance, 
  for that is not the way 
         by which God is leading him. 
Pray to God, my sisters, 
   that the vision may be true, and
   that we in our day may deserve 
       to behold so great a blessing, 
       be ourselves among the martyrs. 
 26. She returns to Madrid.  
In Pastrana the saintly Cardona 
   began to seek the means 
          of founding a monastery, 
and in order to do so 
    went back to Madrid, 
         out of which she had gone away  
         with so much joy                            [37]
     which was no slight torment to her; 
     and there she did not escape 
            trouble or 
            the tongue that speaketh evil, 
     for whenever she went abroad 
        she could not avoid the crowd;
     it was thus wherever she was. 
Some cut off pieces from her habit, 
others from her mantle. 
She went next to Toledo, 
   where she remained with our nuns. 
   All of them assured me 
   that there was about her 
      a fragrance as that of relics, 
            so strong 
      that it moved them 
           to give thanks to our Lord; 
    it clung even to her habit and her girdle 
        which she left behind, 
    for they took her habit from her 
         and gave her another; 
    and the nearer they came to her 
       the more strongly did they perceive it, 
    though her dress,
    owing to the heat which then prevailed, 
        was of a kind to be offensive 
     rather than otherwise. 
I know they would not say anything
   that was not in every way tru ; 
they had a great veneration for her. 
At the court and other places 
   people gave her the means
         to found the monastery, 
and when she had the licence 
    it was founded.                                     [38] 
 27. Her death and burial.  
The church was built 
     where her cave was, 
and another was made for her 
    on one side having in it 
a solid tomb. 
There she remained both night and day 
    during the remainder of her life.          [39] 
That was not long 
  for she lived only about five years and a half 
 after the foundation of the monastery; 
it seems supernatural, 
and indeed so does her former life, 
    considering how severe it was. 
She died in the year 1577, 
    as I find now.                                              [40]
The solemnities of her burial 
    were very grand, 
for a nobleman of the name of 
     Don Juan de Leon                              [41]
  had a great veneration for her and
  insisted on it. 
She is now lying in a chapel of our Lady, 
  to whom she was so extremely devou t,
 but only for a time,
       till a larger church 
 than the one  they have at present 
       shall be built, 
as only fitting to contain her blessed body.
 28. Dona Catalina wished to remove
           to a more distant place.   
The monastery on her account 
   is a place of great devotion, 
          which still continues, 
                  and so 
   is the whole neighbourhood, 
        especially on account 
             of the desert and the cave 
        where she lived. 
Before she resolved 
  on building the monastery 
I have been told on good authority 
  - that she used to be worn and wearied 
         at the sight of the great crowds 
         that came to see her, 
 - that she wanted to go to some other place
        where nobody knew anything about her,
 - that she sent for the hermit 
         who brought her thither 
    to take her away, 
         but he was then dead. 
Our Lord, 
       who had ordained 
         that a house should be built there 
        for our Lady, 
  would not let her depart, 
   for I see, as I said before, 
      that He is greatly served there. 
The friars are in marvellous dispositions, 
   and their countenances show plainly 
what a joy they have 
   in being thus separated from the world
   especially the prior,                                   [43]
       - whom God had taken away 
              from many comforts 
          that he might wear the habit, 
    - whom He thus amply rewarded 
         by giving him 
        the comfort of His Spirit
He showed me much affection there. 
They gave us some of the furniture 
   of their church 
for use in that which we were going to found; 
for, as the saintly woman was held 
    in great respect 
by so many persons of note, 
   their church was well supplied 
with its furniture. 
 29. The Saint's reverence 
           for Dona Catalina.  

During my stay there 
  I was greatly comforted, 
   though to my exceeding great shame, 
  and the shame lasts,  because I saw 
     that she 
          who there had borne so sharp a penance 
      was a woman like myself, 
            and more tenderly nurtured, 
            for she was of a nobler race, 
            and not so great a sinner as I am; 
on this subject 
   there is no comparison possible between us, 
   for I received much greater graces 
         from our Lord in many ways, 
          that I am not this moment in hell 
                  for my great sins 
          is a very great  (grace)
To follow in her steps,
      if I can, 
  is my only comfort; 
but that is not much (comfort)
   for all my life has been wasted in desires; 
as for works I have none.                         [44]
May God of His compassion succour me, 
   in whom I have always put my trust, 
for the sake of His Most Holy Son 
  and the Virgin our Lady, 
       whose habit, 
               by the goodness of our Lord,
        I wear ! 
30 Who appeared to her in a vision.  
One day after Communion 
    in that hallowed church 
I became profoundly recollected, 
    and fell into a trance 
 in which my senses were withheld. 
In that trance 
  I saw the holy woman 
      as a glorious body 
by an intellectual vision. 
There were angels with her; 
she told me not to grow faint,
   but strive to go on with these foundations.

I understand thereby, 
  though she did not say so expressly, 
that she helped me before God. 
She also told me something else, 
  but there is no reason 
why I should repeat it here. 
I was very much comforted, 
  and had a desire to labour; 
and I hope, 
     in the goodness of our Lord,
 that,  with such good help as her prayers are,
     I may be able to serve Him
       in some measure. 
You see now, my sisters, 
  that her troubles are over already, 
  that the bliss she is in 
         has no end. 
Let us strive now 
           for the love of our Lord, 
    to follow this our sister:
        hating ourselves as she hated herself, 
    we shall finish our journey, 
  for everything 
       passes rapidly away 
       comes to an end. 
 31. The Saint reaches Villanueva, 
            21st February 1580.  
On the first Sunday in Lent                      [45]
              — it was the eve of  the feast 
                       of the Chair of S. Peter, and 
                 the feast of  S. Barbatian, 1580 — 
     we reached Villanueva de la Jara. 
On that very day 
    the Most Holy Sacrament was brought 
  into the church of the Grlorious S. Anne 
    at the time of High Mass. 
The whole municipality and 
     certain others with Doctor Ervias, 
  came forth to receive us, 
and we alighted at the church of the town, 
  which is somewhat distant 
from that of S. Anne. 
 32. Is received with great rejoicing. 
The joy of the people was so great
   that it filled me with consolation 
at beholding their pleasure 
    in receiving the Order 
     of the Most Holy Virgin our Lady. 
When we were yet far away 
  we heard the ringing of the bells, 
and on our entering the church 
  they began the Te Teum                       
      one verse sung by the choristers 
               accompanied by the organ, 
      the other played on the organ. 
      That done they carried 
          the Most Holy Sacrament on a bier, 
      and on another our Lady, 
          with crosses and banners. 
The procession moved on in great pomp; 
we, in our white mantles, and faces veiled,  
   were in the middle 
        near the Most Holy Sacrament, 
   close to us 
        our barefooted friars, 
   who had come in great numbers 
         from their monastery;                     [46]
   the Franciscans
                  — for there is a monastery 
                       of S. Francis there — 
        went also, 
   and a Dominican who was in the place, 
     and though he was alone 
   it gave me pleasure to see that habit there. 
33. Her humility.  
As the distance was great, 
  many altars had been raised. 
The procession halted at times, 
  when something was sung about our order, 
 which moved me to great devotion:     [47]

   so also did it 
      to see 
    - that it was all in praise 
          of the great God there present, 
    - that so much was done 
         for us seven poor Discalced nuns 
       who were there. 
Nevertheless, when I reflected upon it 
  I was filled with confusion,
   - that I was among them, and 
   - that everyone there ought to have 
           turned against me 
      if  they would but have treated me 
           as I deserve. 
I have given you 
      at such length 
   this account of the honour done 
      to the habit of our Lady, 
  that you may 
      - give thanks to our Lord and 
      - beseech Him to make use 
             of this foundation, 
   for I have a greater joy 
     when a foundation is made 
            under persecution and with trouble, 
    and I speak of them the more willingly. 
 34. Penitential life in the house of S. Anne. 
It is true the sisters 
     who were already there 
had been in trouble for nearly six years 
      — at least for more 
               than the five years and a half 
           which have gone by 
            since they went into this house 
                of the glorious S. Anne. 
I do not speak of their poverty and toil 
     in earning their food, 
for they never would ask alms; 
the reason of that was 
  that they would not have their neighbours
     think they were there 
           to be supported by them; 
neither do I speak 
    of their great penance, 
    of their long fasts, 
    of their scanty food, 
    of their hard beds, and 
    of the small house 
      which, in the strict enclosure 
         they always observed, 
  was hard enough to bear. 
What was hardest to bear
          they told me, 
   was the earnest longing they had 
           to put on the habit
                 and which 
   was a most grievous torment 
           to them night and day, 
 for they thought they were never to wear it; 
 and accordingly
 their constant prayer
         and that most frequently with tears, 
   was that God would bestow 
         that grace upon them
When they saw any difficulty arise 
    they were distressed beyond measure, 
         and multiplied their penances. 
   They stinted themselves in their food, 
        that out of their earnings
    they might have the means 
         of  paying the messengers 
               who came to me, and 
         of showing what gratitude they could 
               in their poverty to those 
         who were able to help them in any way. 
I see clearly myself 
        ever since I conversed with them 
              and saw  how saintly they were, 
   that they must have obtained 
        their admission into the order
              by their prayers and tears, 
and so I looked  on the possession 
    of such souls as these 
as a much greater treasure 
    than a rich endowment, 
and my hope is 
    the house will prosper greatly. 
 35. Piety of the recluses of S. Anne.  

When we entered the house
    they were standing at the door within, 
each of them dressed as usual, 
  for they were dressed as they were 
      when they first came, 
       and would never put on 
             the habit of beatas, 
       hoping for  ours; 
       what they wore, however, 
           was most modest, 
           showed plainly how little thought
               they had taken for themselves;
       they were so poorly clad,  
           and almost all of them so thin, 
       as to show that they had been living 
           a most penitential life. 
They received us 
    with tears of  great joy, 
and those tears were certainly not feigned. 
Their great virtue shone forth 
    in their joy, 
    in their humility, 
    in their obedience 
        to the prioress and 
        to all those 
            who came to make the foundation; 
they could not do enough to please them. 
All the fear they had 
   was lest the nuns should go back 
when they saw 
        their poverty and 
        the smallness of the house. 
Not one of  them had ever exercised 
   any authority over another, 
but each one had 
   with great affection 
laboured to the utmost of her strength. 
Two of them, 
    and they were the eldest, 
managed all their affairs when necessary;
the rest never spoke to anybody, 
  and would not do so. 
The door of the house 
    had a bolt only, no lock, 
and the eldest answered at it; 
    none of the others ventured near it. 
They slept very little 
   that they might 
        earn their bread 
        not miss their prayer, 
         in which they spent many hours 
                — on festivals the whole day. 
36. Their devotions.  
They directed themselves 
   by means of the books 
           of  Fray Luis of Granada and 
           of  Fray Peter of Alcantara
Most of the time was spent 
   in saying the divine office
       —  they could hardly read it; 
             only one (of them  could read well — 
and that 
   in breviaries
        that differed one from another; 
 some of these, 
        being of the old Roman form,         [48]
     had been given them 
         by certain ecclesiastics 
     who used them no longer, 
others they had got anyhow, 
    and, as they did not know how to read, 
they spent many hours upon them. 
They did not say the office 
   where strangers could hear them;
God accepted their intention and toil, 
but they must have said very little
     that was correct. 
When the father Fray Antonio of Jesus 
   began to know them 
he made them say 
   the Office of Our Lady only.
They had an oven 
  in which they baked their bread, 
and everything was orderly done, 
  as if they had some one to give directions. 
The effect on me 
   was to make me give thanks to our Lord, 
    the more I  conversed with them 
    the more glad I was 
       that I had come. 
I  believe that, 
      whatever difficulties I might have 
             had to undergo, 
I should not have shrunk from them
   to bring consolation to these souls.       [49] 
Those of my companions, who remained,
  told me 
that in the beginning, during the first days, 
  they were conscious 
           of a certain unwillingness 
       to live with them, 
    but that when they came to know them, 
        and saw how good they were, 
    they were very glad to stay, 
        and conceived a great affection for them. 
Sanctity and goodness 
    can do great things. 
 37. The vocation of  a Carmelite.  
The truth is, 
    those who came with me 
           were so good 
  -  that, even if they met 
        with many difficulties and trials, 
      they would have borne all nobly 
         by the grace of our Lord, 
      for they desire to suffer in His service
 - that sister 
         who does not feel this desire 
     must not look upon herself 
          as a true Carmelite nun, 
 because the aim of our desires must be, 
          not rest 
          but suffering,
    that we may in some measure 
        be like unto Him, our true Bridegroom. 
May it please His Majesty 
   to give us His grace for that end ! 
 38. Origin of the hermitage of S. Anne. 
The hermitage of S. Anne 
    began in this way:
There lived here in Villanueva de la Jara, 
  an ecclesiastic 
      born in Zamora, 
      who had been a friar of the order 
           of our Lady of Carmel. 
His name was Diego de Guadalajara
he had a devotion to the glorious S. Anne, 
and so he made this hermitage 
    close to his house, and 
thereby had an opportunity of hearing Mass.
 He went to Rome 
     because of this great devotion, 
and obtained a bull for many indulgences 
     in this church and hermitage. 
He was a pious and interior man. 
He made a will 
    when he was dying, 
and gave this house and all 
     that belongs to it 
for a monastery of nuns 
     of our Lady of  Carmel ; 
and if that could not be done, 
   then for a chaplain 
who was to say certain masses every week, 
   but that as soon as and whenever 
       the monastery should be founded 
    there should be no obligation 
       to say those masses. 
For more than twenty years 
   the hermitage belongeci to the chaplain, 
and the property was ruined, 
   for, though the women 
      took possession of the house, 
   they had nothing but the house. 
The chaplain lived in another 
   belonging to the chapel, 
which he will now give up to us 
   with the rest, 
       and that is very little; 
but the compassion of God is so great 
  that He will not fail to befriend
 the house of His glorious grandmother. 
May it please His Majesty 
   to be ever served therein, 
May all creatures praise Him 
   for ever and ever ! 
J. H. S. 

                         Foot Notes                                    

  Fray Jerome Tostado was
     in Barcelona in March, 1576, 
         furnished with jurisdiction 
          over the whole order in Spain
         (letter of 9th May 1576) ; 
     in Madrid 5th August, 
    he and Fray Jerome Gratian met. 
   The fathers of the mitigation had held 
       a chapter in Moraleja 12th May, 
    but into which they summoned three friars 
       only of the reform; 
    the rest were regarded as excommunicated
     because their houses had been founded 
    without the permission of the father general
     and ordered to be closed 
         by the General chapter. 
    Two of the three friars, 
         those from  Pastrana and Alcala, 
     went to the nuncio Ormaneto for advice, 
     who told them to attend the chapter, 
     but to consent to nothing at variance 
       with their own usages. 
     The elections were over 
        when the two friars arrived; 
      the chapter decreed that there should be 
          no distinctions in the order hereafter,
      the friars were to live together 
         in the practice of the same uses, 
      and the habits of all were to be alike. 
      In short, the reform of S. Teresa 
          was to be rooted out. 
      Fray Juan of Jesus
          prior of Mancera, 
       spoke for his brethren,  
         and told the assembled fathers 
       that their decrees would not be observed
          in the houses of the reform 
             [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. i]. 
      Then, in August, Fray Jerome Tostado
        attempted to use his powers 
       as vicar of the general; 
       but Fray Jerome Gratian confronted him 
          with the authority of the nuncio, 
       who, representing the Pope, had powers
          which the general could not touch. 
     Tostado left for Portugal at the end 
          of the month, 
      and on 8th September 1576, 
       Fray Jerome Gratian, 
             as visitor by delegation of the nuncio,
        held the chapter of Almadovar, 
       and severed the friars of the reform 
          from those of the mitigation. 
       Fray Antonio of Jesus
          being chosen definitor. 
       This was the answer 
           to the chapter of Moraleja. 
      The next year, on the death of the nuncio,
         Fray Jerome Tostado returned, and, 
      in the word: of the chronicler, 
        'unsheathed the sword of his power 
         in Madrid,'
        by forbidding the further admission 
           of novices, 
         and commanding the friars 
            of the reform to be subject
           to those of the mitigation. 
      He then summoned all in authority 
         among the reformed to attend him. 
     These for the most part hid themselves 
      In September 1577, S. Teresa 
        who had come to Avila in July 
      for the purpose of restoring
          the monastery of S. Joseph to the order
                 — it had been founded under 
                      the jurisdiction of  the bishop — 
           implored the king, Philip II, 
              to protect the friars and nuns 
                     of the reform. 
      The king placed the matter 
           in the hands of his council, 
       and thereupon the attorney-general 
         asked Fray Tostado to show his 
            authority before he proceeded further. 
      There was a lawsuit in due form, 
         and a conflict of jurisdictions, 
       in which the vicar, 
           as was to be expected, 
        lost his cause. 
       But the new nuncio was not afraid 
          of the council; 
       he therefore took up the question, 
         renewed some of the decrees 
           of the vicar, 
       and forbade further foundations. 
      Nevertheless, on the prayers 
         of the friars of the reform, 
      he said that the prohibition was 
         to be valid only where there were friars 
      of the mitigation already in possession. 
     He sent for Fray Jerome Gratian, 
        and asked him to give up his faculties 
     received from the former nuncio, 
       for it was on these that the friars relied,
      but Fray Jerome forgot himself, 
         declined, and went to the king, 
      who told him to refuse 
          [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxv.]. 
     The vicar lost his cause 
           5th November 1577 
              (the Bollandists believe it was 
                   in December, n. 1780), 
       and departed for Rome 
                [ ib.  Ch. xxviii, i], 
       for the cause was only lost by the 
     intervention of the civil power, 
      and so far the friars of the mitigation 
          were not yet defeated. 
   See Foundations: ch. xxiv. i (note #4). 
     prior of the Carmelites of the mitigation 
         in Avila, 
    to the great scandal of the city, 
         in 1576, 
     removed S. John of the Cross
        and Fray German of S. Mathias 
     from Avila, 
    where they were living in a small house 
       as confessors and chaplains
           of the nuns of the Incarnation 
       (letter of 5th February 1576). 
     But the nuncio, Monsignore Ormaneto
      had the friars brought back from Medina,
         whither Valdemoro had sent them, 
      and those of the mitigation 
          were forbidden by him 
      to meddle with the monastery 
           of the Incarnation. 
      After the death of Ormaneto 
       and the arrival of Monsignore Sega, 
                 the new nuncio,
        the observant friars took courage, 
       and on the night of 3rd December 1577, 
           seized on the confessors of the nuns 
        and hurried them away 
             secretly to prison.
        S. Teresa appealed to Philip II 
           for help against persons 
        who had no authority 
              over the confessors, 
        or, at least, who had shown none.
           (Letter  of 4th December 1577.) 
       Fray Fernando Maldonado, 
           prior of Toledo, 
        had done this act of wrong, 
         and it was the more reprehensible
         because the nuncio, 
              Monsignore Sega himself 
          had, if unwillingly, given orders
         not to interfere with S. John of the Cross
             [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxvii. 2, 3]. 
        Fray Fernando acted under the orders 
             of Fray Jerome Tostado, the vicar, 
         and took S. John of the Cross with him 
             to Toledo, where he shut him up 
                  in a narrow cell, 
             into which the light entered 
                only by a loophole, 
            where his food was bread and water; 
         the whole community gave him
             the discipline, 
          at first every night, 
          later on thrice in the week 
          and towards the end of his captivity 
              on Fridays only. 
         S. Teresa said she would rather see him
           in the hands of the Moors 
          than in those of the friars 
              of the mitigation
            (letter of  10th December 1577). 
         The king could give but little help, 
           for the friars of the mitigation, 
                however harsh and mistaken, 
          were within their rights, 
          and the authority of  the nuncio 
              was on their side. 
  In October, 1577, 
    the nuns of the Incarnation in Avila 
     elected S. Teresa their prioress. 
   Some of the nuns opposed to the Saint 
      appealed against the election 
   to Fray Juan Gutierrez de la Madalena, 
      the provincial. 
   He came to the monastery, 
      by orders from Fray Jerome Tostado, 
     as he said, 
     and ignoring the election, 
      summoned the nuns to elect a prioress
          from among the conventuals, 
      S. Teresa being of  the number. 
     They obeyed him 
      and S. Teresa was chosen
        [ Rejorma, bk. iv. ch. xxvi. 4.]
     Fifty-five nuns voted for her, 
        but the provincial rejected the votes, 
     and declared those who gave them 
     He came back another day, 
     and summoned the nuns to elect a prioress.

     He was told by them 
       that they had made an election, 
     and when they were told by him 
       they were excommunicated,
      forty-four nuns elected 
              Anne of Toledo
     but the others said
        they would obey her only 
     as the deputy of the prioress
    That election was confirmed 
        by Fray Jerome Tostado. 
        (Letter of the end of October 1577.) 
     The nuns were for fifty days not allowed
          to hear mass or communicate 
           with any outside the monastery, 
       and the latter prohibition was in force 
         so late as 16th January 1578. 
      This election added 
           to the trouble of the Saint, and 
       made both the friars of the mitigation 
            and the nuncio very angry with her. 

   Monsignore Philip Sega
     born at Bologna 
     and intimately befriended 
            with S. Charles Borromeo, 
     was bishop of Ripa Transona at this time, 
     translated the next year to Piacenza, 
       a most learned and admirable prelate, 
      but unhappily very much 
        under the influence of the Carmelites 
           of the mitigation, 
      and ill disposed towards the Saint 
             [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxu. 2]. 
      The Bollandists, n. 761, 
             say of him, 
      'Optime ac sanctissime gestis conspicuus' 
      and that he was made Cardinal 
         by Innocent IX 
       and died in Rome in 1596. 
     He was appointed nuncio In Spain
       before the death of Ormaneto and 
      announced his arrival at Madrid 
         30th August 1577. 
      Master Johannes Franciscus Canobius, 
          apostolic notary, 
       having acted as internuncius. 
   Fray Antonio of Jesus, 
     now that Fray Jerome 
         had resigned his authority, 
     took upon himself, 
          as the definltor elected in the chapter 
              of  Almodovar held in August, 1576, 
         with the sanction of the late nuncio, 
      to call another chapter of Almodovar, 
               9th October 1578. 
    It is true he had the advice of lawyers. 
    To the chapter came, among others, 
       S. John of the Cross, 
     who had miraculously escaped 
         out of prison. 
     He, however, protested 
         against the proceedings, 
      but was overruled. 
     The friars erected the reform
         into a separate province, 
      and chose Fray Antonio 
         as their provincial. 
      Fray Juan of Jesus arrived
           before the fathers separated 
      and urged upon them the illegality of 
           what they had done, 
       but they shut him in a cell for a month 
         lest he should convince others
             of their wrong. 
       They chose two fathers to go to Rome 
           to obtain the papal sanction. 
        One of them. Fray Pedro of the Angels, 
           was told by S. John of the Cross,
         'You are going shoeless to Rome, 
             but you will return shod,' 
           as in fact he did, 
             for he returned to the mitigation,  
           notwithstanding the extreme austerity 
             of his life among the reformed. 
     The friars kept their doings secret 
          for a while, 
      but it was necessary
           to let the nuncio know 
      what they had done. 
     He very naturally was angry, 
        and ordered the fathers to retire 
           into different monasteries. 
       Fray Antonio,
               imprisoned at first in Madrid, 
       was sent to Roda
           and this is the banishment
           to which the Saint refers 
                [ Rejorma, bk. iv. 
                    ch. xxxi. xxxii. xxxiii. i ]. 
       The Saint herself begged Fray Jerome 
           in a letter, 15th April 1578, 
        to remain quiet, 
        and abstain from attempting to do 
           what it was not lawful for them 
               to meddle with, 
        and advised recourse straightway
            to the general of the order or 
            to the Pope himself. 
   He was sent at first to Atocha, 
        a convent of the Dominicans, 
   but, as the king had a great affection 
       for him, 
   and might probably wish to see him, 
       the nuncio removed him to Pastrana, 
   probably at the end of the year, 
      for he was in Madrid, 
         13th November 1578 
         [ Reforma, bk. iv. 
            ch. xxxiii. and ch. xxxiv. 8, ad fin.].
  He appointed 
     Fray Juan Gutierrez de la Madalena and
     Fray Diego de Cardenas, 
        provincials respectively 
            of Castille and Andalucia, 
      with Fray Angel de Salazar, 
           prior of Valladolid, 
      all of the mitigated observance, 
          to be visitors of the friars and nuns 
             founded by S. Teresa, 
      and gave them power to bring them back
         to the old usages of the order. 
    The decree was signed 
         16th October 1578 
      [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxxvii. 3]. 
  When Fray Jerome Tostado was defeated 
     by the council, 
   the nuncio toolc the cause
         into his own hands, 
   and commissioned friars of the mitigation 
       to visit the houses of the reformed, 
    revoking as he had a right to do, 
            22nd July, 
     the powers granted by the late nuncio
         to Fray Jerome of the Mother of God 
          [ cf. Antonio of S. Joseph letter ]. 
    In August, 1578, the visitors, 
       who were two fathers of the province 
      of Andalucia, 
             Agustin Suarez and   Coria 
       —they had come to Madrid  lOth July — 
      went to Pastrana to receive
           the submission of 
            Fray Antonio, 
            Fray Jerome and 
            Fray Mariano
      For a moment the whole reform 
          of S. Teresa was in imminent danger, 
     for there were thoughts of resistance. 
       Fray Jerome happily took counsel 
         of a holy lay brother, 
       who advised absolute obedience. 
     This advice was taken, 
           as the friars yielded to the visitors, 
      and resigned into their hands 
      the faculties received 
          from the late nuncio. 
The three fathers already named 
   went to Madrid and humbled themselves
  before the new nuncio. 
He, however, by way of penance, 
   forbidding them to hear or say mass 
  or to communicate with anybody, 
   relegated them to certain religious houses; 
     Fray Antonio to 
         that of the barefooted Franciscans, 
        to Atocha, a convent of the Dominicans,
     Fray Jerome 
        to the Carmel of Madrid. 
The king's council at the same time 
  had ordered all the decrees 
    of the nuncio to be suppressed 
        by the civil power, 
    and the nuncio when he heard of it 
      believed that the friars were not sincere
           in their submission; 
      hence the severity 
        with which he treated the three friars. 
     The nuncio sent for Fray Juan of Jesus, 
         to whom he spoke with great harshness 
      of S. Teresa herself. 
      These were his words:
         — 'A restless gadabout woman — 
               femina inquieta, andariega —    
      disobedient and stubborn, 
       who under the cloak of  devotion, 
          invented wicked opinion, 
      going about breaking enclosure, 
        contrary to the decree of
              the Council of Trent 
              the orders of her superiors, 
      teaching as if she were a doctor, 
         in contempt of the teaching of S. Paul,
         who commanded women not to teach
              [Reforma, bk. iv. 
                  ch.xxviii. XXX. 2]. 

    Don Luis Hurtado de Mendoza, 
        count of Tendilla, 
     pleaded for the friars with the nuncio, 
      and, forgetting himself, 
           used unbecoming language. 
    Quitting the presence of the nuncio,
       he went to Chumazero, 
              the attorney-general, 
      whom he persuaded to use the civil courts 
         in defence of the friars. 
    The issue was a decree of the council, 
       suspending the execution of the orders 
           of the nuncio
      till the friars of the reform had a hearing.

    Copies of this decree were sent 
        to the monasteries, 
     but all of them, 
         one only excepted, that of Granada, 
     declined the king's protection
         in that form, 
     and submitted to the nuncio. 
     Granada had been founded 
        under difficulties, 
      and greatly befriended by the count; 
      three of the fathers, however, 
           left the house and 
       made their submission
       to the vicar provincial of the observants 
            [Reforma , bk. iv. ch. xxxiii. 4]. 
      The nuncio complained 
               of the count's behaviour 
       to the king, 
          who disapproved, 
                   offered to rebuke the count, 
          ordered the president of the council, 
              Don Mauricio de Pazos,
               bishop elect of Avila,
           to convey his displeasure to him. 
     The president wrote to him, 
          for he had left Madrid, and 
       received a reply explaining his conduct. 
    The letter was shown to the king, 
        who was satisfied, 
     and requested Don Mauricio 
         to send it to the nuncio, 
     but not to let him know that he had seen it. 
     On his return to Madrid
         the count called on the nuncio, 
      and again pleaded, 
        but in courteous language,
      the cause of the persecuted friars, 
         who he said were, 
              in the opinion of all men, 
       more worthy of encouragement 
          than of the treatment 
               hitherto received by them. 
     The nuncio, 
           who was in good faith, and 
           who firmly believed 
               all he had heard against them, 
       told the count he should be glad 
           to have anybody 
        whom the king might appoint 
            as his assistants in the process, 
       for he had no interest to serve 
            but that of justice. 
The count asked him 
    to put his offer in writing; 
the nuncio did so at once, 
 and the count took away the paper, 
   which was immediately sent to the king. 
Philip II was pleased, 
  and appointed 
       his chaplain 
            Don Luis Manrique,
       his preacher the Augustinian 
            Friar Lorencio de Villavicencis, 
      the two Dominicans 
            Fray Hernando del Castillo 
                 (also a royal preacher) and 
            Fray Pedro Fernandez, 
                     provincial of Castille 
        [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxxvi.]. 
 Fray Pedro Fernandez 
    had made his former visitations 
  in great humility and charity, 
    travelling on foot. 
 When he was making the visit of Pastrana 
   he lived with the friars 
   and observed their rule. 
 It is, therefore, not to be wondered at 
     that S. Teresa trusted him. 
  The assessors found the nuncio 
     when they met, 
          1st April 1579, 
   under the dominion of prejudice,
   and could not prevail upon him
     to hear anything in defence of the friars, 
   whom he honestly believed to be 
      what their adversaries described. 
   Therefore they called for all the papers 
       he had received, 
    and these were produced, 
     for the nuncio felt 
           that they would amply justify 
                 his previous acts. 
     They then called his attention to the fact 
        that there was nothing in them 
      but accusations 
         without a shadow of proof. 
    The nuncio saw at once 
       that he had been misled, and 
       that he had read the papers 
          in the light of the wrong information
       given him by the Italian friars 
          before he left Rome, 
       who probably were themselves 
          innocently deceived. 
    He withdrew the faculties 
        he had given to the visitors 
    who had dealt so ruthlessly 
        with their brethren, 
     and appointed Fray Angel de Salazar 
        visitor, with strict orders 
      to save the reform and release it 
         from all subjection to the friars 
             of the observance. 
     The faculties of Fray Angel de Salazar 
         were signed 1st April 1579 
           [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxxvii. 1-3]. 
   Immediately on her arrival in Toledo, 
       in the month of June, 1576
     [ Yepes, ii. 29]. 
  Among the many persons attracted partly 
      by curiosity and partly by veneration 
    round Dona Catalina de Cardona 
    there were four young ladies, 
      the daughters of pious and noble parents.
 Their intention was to serve God
      under the guidance of that holy anchoress,
  but she would not consent to this, 
     and their brother, a priest, 
      as well as the parish priest of Villanueva, 
   advised them to lead the life of Beatas 
      while Dona Catalina foretold them 
    that one day they should found 
       a convent of  Carmelite nuns. 
   A widow, mother of four daughters 
    who were animated by a similar purpose, 
   invited them to join her household, 
     and soon after another lady 
         was admitted into it as well. 
    The people of  Villanueva 
       with the parish priest at their head 
     received them and led them in procession 
        to the hermitage of S. Anne 
     close to the house where the widow lived. 
    This happened in 1574. 
    Doctor Agustin Ervias, 
           canon of Cuenca,
           who succeeded Juan de Rojas 
                as parish priest of Villanueva,
      undertook to make 
          the necessary arrangements 
               with the municipality and 
               with Saint Teresa 
         for the new community 
         to be aggregated to her convents, 
     for which purpose 
             he despatched  a messenger 
         who met her at Toledo, 
     [ Reforma, bk. v. ch. iii.  (# 2,3)
        Oeuvrcs, iv. 99, note 2 ]. 
  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   From another version:
      Four young ladies went 
    to see Dona Catalina de Cardona 
 in her penance in the desert, 
  and were so moved of God at the sight 
    that they wished to follow her example. 
That seemed beyond their strength, 
    and through their brother, a priest, 
they obtained the advice of Don Juan le Rojas,
    then parish priest of Villanueva de la Jara. 
 By his direction they lived together as religious, 
   and soon after a widow with four daughters,   
 knowing of their way of life, 
    came and joined them. 
  They sent word of all this to Dona Catalina 
      in the desert about the year 1572, 
   who comforted them by telling them 
     that they were to be the beginning 
         of a house of Cormel of the reform. 
   The municipality gave them the hermitage.
     [Reforma de los Descalfos, 
        lib. v. ch. iii. §§ 2, 3].
     [From: The book of the foundations 
            of S. Teresa of Jesus, 
            written by herself,  
            Translated by David Lewis 1871 ]
  Don Agustin had been Canon of Cuenca;    
      wearied of that dignity, 
   he exchanged it for the parish church 
      of Villanueva 
     and Don Juan, 
             mentioned in the foregoing note, 
     became Canon of Cuenca
          [  Ibid § 4]. 
          [ ? Reforma, bk. v. ch. iii. iv]
   See Foundations: ch. xxx. 1, note. 

  See § 3 above. 
  The nuncio confined Fray Antonio at first
     in the barefooted Franciscan monastery 
       of S. Bernardin in Madrid, 
     together with 
        Fray Gabriel of the Assumption. 
    But, as the latter was wanted 
        in his monastery of Roda,
    the nuncio sent him back, 
        and with him Fray Antonio, 
    after a detention of some weeks in Madrid. 
  This was in the year 1578 
    [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxxiii. i, and 
                       bk. v. ch. iii. 5]. 
   Fray Gabriel of the Assumption 
      was a native of Pastrana; 
    his father, Juan de Buencuchillo, and 
    his mother, Ana Hernandez Ruiz, 
      were persons of great consideration
            in the town. 
    Fray Gabriel was about to be married,
         but gave up the world, 
      moved by our Lord, 
       at the ceremony of taking the habit by
            Mariano of S. Benedict and 
           Juan de la Miseria
       in the chapel of Ruy Gomez, in 1569 
              (see ch. xvii. 13). 
    In the octave of the Assumption 
       of  the same year 
     he took the habit himself, 
       being the third novice 
    who left the world 
         for the reform of S. Teresa. 
    He was prior of La Roda 
         during the troubles, 
     and died in  1584, 
          two years after the death of the Saint.
              [ Reforma, bk. ii. ch. xxviii. 9 ;
                                           ch. xxxvii. 6 ; 
                        and  bk. vi. ch. xxxiii). 
  This offer of Doctor Ervias 
     was made in 1580, 
   when the troubles of  the order 
      were nearly over. 
   Fray Antonio had accompanied
        the prior to Malagon, 
   to press the matter on the Saint 
    {Reforma, bk. v. ch. iii. 5). 
   The Saint had arrived in Malagon 
       25th November 1579.
   She had gone from Toledo to Avila 
       in July, 1577, 
    where she remained 
         in the monastery of S. Joseph, 
     given to the (Carmelite)  Order 
          by her 
       during the persecution, 
     till 25th April 1579, 
       when peace was restored. 
    She now visited the monasteries 
       and consolidated her work, 
     which had been grievously threatened, 
         and in some places shattered, 
      by the oppressive rule of the fathers 
         of the mitigation. 
   The Saint, 
      writing to Mother Mary of S. Joseph,
          prioress of  Seville, 
          1st February 1580, 
      - that Fray Angel de Salazar 
             had sent the permission 
          five days before, i.e. 28th January, 
      - that she meant to take with her 
            as sub-prioress
                  Elvira of San Angelo
          professed in Malagon; 
     - that the prioress was to be from Toledo, 
         but she was then in doubt 
            whom she should choose. 
       [ Letter 272: etter 63 Vol 1 ed. Doblado]
          according to a later edition by Lewis)
  The Saint had a general procession 
      in the monastery 
    to obtain light for the purpose 
        of choosing the nuns. 
   With the Sister Elvira
         she took Anne of S. Augustine
    and then, going with them and 
        Anne of S. Bartholomew
        together with the friars 
              who came for her, to Toledo, 
    she took from that monastery 
            Maria of the Martyrs 
      whom she appointed prioress 
        —not Anne of the Mother of God, 
               as Ribera relates — 
     and Constance of the Cross 
        [ Reforma, bk. v. ch. iii. 6]. 
  The Saint, in a letter to 
       Fray Jerome of the Mother of God, 
          12th February  1580, 
    that the two friars were come
             that day to Malagon,  and 
    that they had brought with them 
             a carriage and a cart. 
  "Fray Antonio is come 
         in good health and fat; 
      trouble fattens this year, I think."
   See Paragraph § 10 , above. 
  Her father was Don Ramon de Cardona,  
    descended from the royal house of Aragon,
 and her mother was a near relative 
    of the princess of Salerno, 
      into whose house she was taken 
          on her father's death, 
      when she was but eight years of age. 
   She had a vision of her father in purgatory,
     who told her that his release 
    would be the fruit of  her penance. 
    Thereupon she at once began 
         to mortify and discipline herself
     till she obtained her father's deliverance. 
    The princess of  Salerno brought her
        to Spain, 
     and, about the time 
       when S. Teresa was laying 
           the foundations of her reform. 
      Dona Catalina, 
         who was four years younger, 
       was moved to begin the life 
         of heroic austerity in the desert 
       of which the Saint here speaks. 
   When she was living in Valladolid 
       with the princess 
    she recognised the heretic 
       in the popular preacher Cazalla 
    when everybody else was running 
       after him. 
     On the death of the princess 
       she governed the household 
      for a time of Ruy Gomez, 
       and had also under her care 
           the prince Don Carlos and 
          his brother Don Juan of Austria. 
     The former she could not influence, 
      but for the latter 
          she had a most tender affection. 
     She led now a most austere life,
         eating no flesh and 
         fasting four days in the week 
          [ Reforma,  bk. iv. ch. i.-v.]. 
  She had the advice and encouragement 
     also of S. Peter of Alcantara 
        [  Reforma, bk. iv. ch. iv. 10 ]. 
 Ruy Gomez went to visit an estate 
    he had just purchased, and 
  Dona Catalina begged she might 
   accompany him and the princess his wife. 
  Ruy Gomez consented, 
   and from his house in Estremera 
  she made her way, dressed as a man,
    to the desert, 
   where she spent her life 
      in the service of God 
        [  Reforma, bk. iv. ch. v. 2, 3]. 
   He was a priest Pina by name, 
    who, having visited
             the holy places of Rome, 
      withdrew into the mountain of Vera Cruz, 
             near Old Alcala, 
             where he lived as a hermit, 
      much reverenced by all 
        for his sanctity and 
              the wisdom of his counsel. 
     He had some business with the prince 
       Ruy Gomez, 
      and that brought him into relations 
          with Dona Catalina, 
      whom he knew before in Madrid. 
      He approved of her resolution, 
        and then, 
      with Martin Alonzo, 
           a native of La Roda, 
           who had been chaplain of Ruy Gomez,

      they set out, she in man's clothing, 
            before dawn, and 
       made their way to La Roda. 
      They found a cave for her, 
         and there left her
               [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. v.]. 
   His name was Benitez
   He and others knew that a hermit lived
       somewhere in that country, 
   for he had been seen in the church 
         of Fuen Santa, 
    but none knew where he was living. 
    Dona Catalina had lived 
         three years in the cave 
    before Benitez found her 
        gathering herbs and roots for her support
        [Reforma, bk. iv. ch. ix. i, 2]. 
  Friars of the order 
      of our Lady de la Merced, 
  founded for the ransom of captives 
     from the unbelievers 
   by S. Peter Nolasco 
      the first general, S. Raymond de Penafort, 
      and James I king of Aragon. 
The fourth vow of the friars is,
    that they will, if necessary, 
 deliver themselves up to the infidels 
    for the release of prisoners. 
   One night when she was praying 
     she saw that the cave was crumbling, 
    for the earth had been loosened
        by the moisture. 
    She tried to escape,
     but was overwhelmed by the falling earth.
   In the morning 
      she was 
             discovered half buried, 
      and at the same time 
        were discovered also 
             her fearful instruments of penance. 
     The people cleared the cave, 
         and in doing so 
             made it larger, 
             and also protected it against the wet 
                 [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. x. 5]. 
 The friars left Duruelo,
     the first house, 
   and established themselves in Mancera, 
      11th June 1570. 
   The house in Pastrana was founded 
    a year earlier, 13th June 1569. 
    See ch. xiv. 8, note  ; 
           ch. xvii. l3, note. 
          . . . . . . . . . . . .
    Blog Note:
      As found on this blog
      Foundations:ch. xiv:  note #9 
                            ch. xv11: Note # 19]
  After the vision 
    she made inquiries about friars 
    such as she now understood 
       to be our Lord's will to send to La Roda,
   and all were amazed at her questions. 
   A few days later 
   a poor man who had gone to Pastrana 
     came to her and said, 
        ' Give me a reward; 
         I have seen your friars in Pastrana;
    the prince Ruy Gomez 
       has built them a monastery there.' 
    She then wrote to the prince, 
     and he communicated the letter 
       to the friars. 
    Fray Ambrosio Mariano was sent
       to the cave for her, 
     and brought her to Pastrana, 
         not without 
           much persuasion, and 
           some trouble in getting away 
              without the knowledge 
              of the neighbourhood. 
      On the 3rd of May 1571, 
          she came to Pastrana, 
       and the prince himself 
          with the duke of Gandia,
              the successor of  S. Francis Borja, 
       went out to meet her, with many others.
            [Reforma, bk. iv. chs. xi. xii]. 
  She would have 
       the habit of a lay brother, 
   for she thought the life  
         of the Carmelite nuns 
       too soft for her, 
    and she was accordingly so clothed, 
         6th May, 
     by the Prior Fray Baltasar of Jesus (Nieto) 
        (Ihid., ch. xii. 5. 6). 
    6th May 1571. 
  See ch. xvii. 5, note. 
  . . . . . . . . . . . .
  Blog Note:
    see also Note #10 in this blog
  She went to Madrid 
    accompanied by the fathers 
      Fray Pedro of the Apostles, 
      Fray Ambrosio Mariano, and the 
      Brother Juan de la Miseria. 
   As she had been in the habit 
     of giving her blessing to the people 
    who thronged around her in her cave,
    so she continued to do in Madrid ; 
    and one day a zealous and good man 
      told the nuncio, Monsignore Ormaneto, 
    that he had seen a Carmelite lay brother
     in a carriage with ladies, 
      giving his blessing like a bishop 
          to the people. 
    The nuncio sent for Fray Ambrosio, 
       whom he knew well, 
     and asked him who the brother was. 
     Fray Ambrosio told the whole truth,
        but the nuncio would not be satisfied
            — he must see the woman herself 
                     and try her spirit. 
     Fray Ambrosio went for Dona Catalina 
        and took her to the nuncio; 
     she, as soon as she saw him,
          gave him her blessing as usual, 
     but the nuncio was not pleased, 
       - asked the friar how he came
           to bring her to his presence 
               in that dress, 
      - asked her what spirit it was 
           that made her bless the people 
         as if she were a bishop. 
   The two friars prostrated themselves 
         before the nuncio 
    and were silent, 
   and he, 
          touched by their  humility, 
      bade them rise, and 
      by conversing with them 
          understood the matter, 
   and left Dona Catalina in peace, 
      asking her, however, to pray 
        for the success of the Catholic league 
            under Don Juan 
               [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xiv. 4]. 
   The licence 
         to make the foundation 
   was obtained for her by
       the king from the provincial 
          of the mitigation, and 
       the visitor apostolic, 
          Fray Pedro Fernandez. 
    She received large presents 
         of vestments  and vessels 
      for the celebration of mass, 
    which moved a grave ecclesiastic 
        to say to her
     that woollen chasubles and leaden chalices
        were well enough for poor friars. 
     She answered, 
         ' You, a worm of the earth, 
             have a service of silver, 
           and want the King of kings 
             to be satisfied with lead.' 
     She left Madrid
          in the beginning of March, 1572, 
      and in April 
           took possession of the place 
      where the new monastery 
        was to rise over the cave 
      which she had dwelt in for eight years  
           [Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xvi. 2, 3]. 
   In October, 1573, 
     at the earnest request 
           of a knight of S. James, 
    she left the cave on an errand of charity 
        to Madrid. 
   Don Gonzalo, 
       elder brother of the archbishop of Toledo,
   was in danger of losing his life, 
    and she was to beg his pardon of the king, 
      who refused to listen to any one. 
    In this she was successful, 
      and set out for La Roda 
    in the beginning of the following year, 
       visiting the princess of Eboli in Pastrana, 
    who was already beginning 
        to be weary of the nuns. 
    Father Caspar de Salazar, S.J., 
      sent by the Inquisition of Cuenca 
              to examine her spirit, 
       visited her in the cave, 
       and was 
              not only edified 
              but amazed 
          at what he saw and heard: 
     his report to the inquisitors 
         silenced all clamour
               [Reforma, bk. iv. chs. xix., xx]. 
   The chronicler of the order says, 
        (bk. iv. ch. xx.)
    -  that she foretold  her death, 
       which was to take place 
              within the octave of the Ascension, 
    - that she died 11th May 1577, 
        though others say
             it was two years later. 
   Father Bouix says she died llth May 1577, 
      on the octave of  the Ascension. 
    Now, in 1577 Ascension Day 
          fell on 16th May ; 
     but in 1578, it fell on the 8th, 
     and in that year  11th May 
         was within the octave. 
    Her body was afterwards
       transferred to Villanueva. 
    the MS. says "Fray" Juan de Leon, 
   but  Father Gratian rightly corrected this 
     by writing "Don"

   adding,  however, 
    that he believed (Don) Juan de Leon 
       would yet become a friar 
    since S. Teresa had given him this title. 
  In 1603 the monastery was removed 
      to Villanueva de la Jara, 
  and the friars took with them 
     the body of their foundress, 
  and three years afterwards, 
    when Fray Pedro of Jesus Maria was prior, 
        placed it in an honourable place 
      on the gospel side 
         [Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xx. 8]. 
  The prior of La Roda was 
          Fray Gabriel of the Assumption
   (see above, § 10, note.) 
   See Relation iii. 12. 
   21 St February 1580. 
  The monastery of our Lady of Succour, 
       La Roda. 
  Cantando muchos villancicos 
    a proposito de la venida tan deseada 
  de las religiosas 
     [ Yepes, ii. 30]. 
     . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 Blog 's rough translation:
   "Singing many hymns
   pertaining to the coming 
     of the much longed-for Religious"
   (the long awaited arrival of
      St. Teresa and the Carmelite nuns)
 At this time the breviary and missal 
    were corrected and reformed 
         by S. Pius V, 
    whereby the old books 
         became unserviceable. 
   The Saint calls them the ' old Roman ' 
      to distinguish them from the new books, 
      to show that they had been used 
         by the secular clergy, 
      and were not the breviaries 
         of any religious order. 

  On the feast of S. Mathias, 
        25th February
   the Saint gave the habit 
        to the nine women 
            (see § 7) 
   who had shut themselves up 
       in the hermitage of S. Anne. 
    The sermon on the occasion 
      was preached by Fray Antonio of Jesus 
         [  Reforma, bk. v. ch. iii. 10]. 

             End of  Chapter 28 
                     of the 
          Book of the Foundations
             of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel   

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