Monday, September 19, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Chapter 27 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

      The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
 of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  
          CHAPTER 27     XXVII

        Chapter 27      Contents
  Treats Of  
  - The Foundation In The City 
     Of Caravaca
  - The Blessed Sacrament Is Reserved 
       On New Year's Day 
     Of The Same Year 1576. 
  - It Bears The Title Of 
      The Glorious Saint Joseph 
  1. Caravaca. — 
  2. The Saint undertakes 
        the foundation. —
  3. Difficulties. — 
  4. The final arrangements made. — 
  5. The lords of Caravaca claim 
       the jurisdiction over the monastery. —
  6. The nuns intended for Caravaca. — 
  7. Sent out. — 
  8. Evils of melancholy. — 
  9. Nuns to guard against laxity. — 
10. Exhortation to the nuns. —
11. No one to be refused 
         because she is poor. — 
12. How nuns ought to dispose 
         of their wealth. — 
13. The Saint confesses her integrity. — 
14. And the hand of God. — 
15. The hardships endured by the Saint. — 
16. Her affection for the nuns. — 
17. The monasteries founded 
          with the sanction of theGeneral. — 
18. The foundations stopped. — 
19. The Saint's joy. — 
20. The Saint rejoiced in her troubles. — 
21. Reasons of her writing. — 
22. Interrupted and resumed. — 
23. Ceases from writing. — 
24. And asks for prayers. 

          CHAPTER 27
 1. Caravaca.  
When I was in S. Joseph's, Avila, 
   about to depart 
       for the foundation in Veas, 
   of which I have spoken already             [1] 
   with everything settled 
       except the immediate preparations 
                for the journey, 
    there came to me a special messenger 
       from a lady who lived in Caravaca, 
    called Dona Catalina,                          [2]
        to tell me 
    that three young women, 
        after hearing a sermon 
             by a father of the Society of Jesus, 
    had come to her house, 
        determined never to quit it
    till a monastery should be built 
        in that place. 
It was an act 
   which they must have arranged 
 with that lady, 
    who is the person 
 who helped them in that foundation. 
They were children of the greatest persons 
    in that town.                                             
One was the daughter of Rodrigo de Moya
    a very great servant of God, and 
    a man of great prudence. 
They had money enough among them 
    for a work like this. 
They knew what our Lord had done 
   in the foundation of these monasteries,
 having heard of them                                 [3]
   from the fathers of the Society of Jesus, 
who always countenanced and helped us. 
  2. The Saint undertakes the foundation.  

When I saw 
   the earnestness and fervour of these souls, 
        who sent so far 
   for the order of our Lady, 
         my devotion was kindled, 
    and I felt a great wish 
       to further their good intention. 
Having ascertained that the place 
   was near Veas, 
I took with me more nuns 
   than I was in the habit of doing, 
        purposing to go thither 
   when the foundation in Veas 
        should be settled; 
for, judging by the letters, 
  I thought we could not fail 
in making the arrangement. 
 3. Difficulties.  

But my plans were of little use, 
    for our Lord had decreed otherwise, 
    as I said in
    the History of the Foundation of Seville.[4] 
They had obtained permission 
    of the council of the orders, 
but it was such 
    as made me give it up, 
    though I had resolved to go thither. 
The truth is, 
   • that when I found out at Veas
         ◦ where the place was,                      [5] 
         ◦ that it was so far away, and 
         ◦ what a labour it would be 
              to visit the nuns, 
   • that superiors might take it amiss, 
       I was not very willing 
           to go and make that foundation. 
   as I had raised certain expectations, 
I begged the Father Julian of Avila 
      and Antonio Gaytan
  to go and see how the matter stood, 
  to put an end to it
     if they should think it right to do so. 
They found it had been very much neglected, 
   not by those 
      who were to become nuns, 
   but by Dona Catalina, 
      who was the chief person concerned in it, 
      who lodged the young women 
           in a room by themselves, 
       as if they were already withdrawn 
           from the world. 
 4. The final arrangements made.  
The nuns were so earnest, 
     especially two of them

      — I am speaking of those 
           who were to become nuns —
     that they completely won over 
        Julian of Avila and Antonio Gaytan 
                 — so much so 
     that they had the deeds drawn up 
          before they returned, 
     and came away leaving the nuns
         in great joy. 
They were so pleased themselves 
   with them and the  Country                      
that they did nothing else 
    but say so, 
at the same time admitting 
    the road was bad.  
When I saw the matter settled                      [6]
  but the licence delayed, 
I sent back again the good Antonio Gaytan, 
  who, out of affection for me, 
      willingly undertook all this trouble. 
He and Julian of Avila were very eager 
   about the foundation; 
in truth, we must thank them 
   for this foundation, 
for if  they had not 
   gone thither and arranged it all 
I could have done very little for it. 
I told him to go and put up the turn 
   with the grating 
where they were to take possession, 
where the nuns were to remain
   till they found a proper house. 
He remained, therefore, many days there; 
it was in the house of Rodrigo de Moya
   who, as I said before, 
was the father of one of the young girls, 
and who had given us a part of it
He was there many days 
exceedingly well pleased, busy with this. 
  5. The lords of Caravaca claim 
       the jurisdiction over the monastery.  
When they had obtained the licence, 
   and when I was about 
setting out on my journey, 
  I heard that by one of the clauses thereof
     - the house was to be subject 
            to the commandery, 
     - that the nuns were to yield
            obedience to the knights.               [7]
That I could not allow, 
   because it was to be a house 
        of the Order of Our Lady of Carmel, 
   and accordingly they applied 
         for another licence ; 
and here, as in the case of Veas, 
    they could not get it. 
But the king now reigning, Don Philip,   [8]
   was so good to me
        that on my writing to him 
    he gave orders for the issuing 
        of the licence, 
   so ready is he to help those religious 
        who, he knows, keep their rule; 
    for when he had heard 
         of our way of living 
               in these monasteries, and 
         of our observance of the primitive rule, 
    he helped us in everything: 
   and so 1 earnestly beg of you, 
          my daughters, 
   always to make special intercessions 
          for his majesty, 
    as we are doing at present. 
   Then, as another application 
       had to be made for a licence,
    I departed for Seville, 
       by order of the father-provincial,        [9]
       who was then as now,
           the father-master, Fray Jerome Gratian 
                of the Mother of God, 
            as I said before; 
and the poor children continued shut up
  till the following New Year's Day. 
It was in February 
   they had sent the message to Avila.       [10  
The licence now was very soon obtained, 
 but, as I was 
    so far away, and 
    in the midst of so much trouble myself, 
I could not help them, 
   and was very sorry for them. 
They wrote to me very often 
   in their great distress, and 
I could not bear to keep them 
   in that state any longer. 
  6. The nuns intended for Caravaca.  
As it was impossible for me to go myself, 
both because of the great distance            
   because this (Seville) foundation            [12]
         was not yet completely made, 
the father-master Fray Jerome Gratian, 
   who, as I have said before, 
         was apostolic visitor at the time, 
resolved that the nuns 
   who were intended for the foundation there, 
   who were then in S. Joseph's of Malagon
         should go thither, 
though I could not go with them. 
  7. Sent out.  

I arranged that the prioress                       [13]
   should be one, 
 who I was confident 
   would do exceedingly well, 
for she is much better than I am. 
Taking with them 
   whatever was necessary, 
they departed with two of our fathers 
    of  the barefooted Carmelites,              [14]
for the father Julian of Avila 
    and Antonio Gaytan had for some days 
         previously returned to their homes, 
and I did not like them to go with them, 
    because the place was so far off 
and the weather so bad, 
    for it was now the end of December. 
The nuns on their arrival were received 
   with great joy in the place, 
particularly by those 
   who were shut up so closely. 
The monastery was founded, and 
the Most Holy Sacrament carried in 
   on the feast of the Name of Jesus, 1576.  
Two of them took the habit at once; 
the other was much given to melancholy, 
and the evil must have been increased 
   by her confinement, 
      to say nothing of  the closeness of it 
            and her penances; 
it was settled
 that she should return home 
    with one of her sisters.                        [16] 
 8. Evils of melancholy.  
Behold, my daughters, 
      the judgments of God, and 
      the obligation we are under to serve Him,    
 seeing that He has allowed us 
         to persevere and make our profession, 
         to dwell for ever in the house of God 
             as daughters of the Virgin, 
His Majesty made use 
     of the goodwill of this lady and 
     of her property, 
but, at the moment 
    when she was about to enter 
       on the fruition of that 
           which she had so much desired, 
    her strength failed her and 
    her low spirits prevailed, 
       on which, my children, 
           we often lay the blame 
           of our imperfections and caprices. 
9. Nuns to guard against laxity.  
May His Majesty 
  - pour down His grace  abundantly on us, 
      for then nothing will hinder us 
          from advancing ever more and more 
      in His service, 
           and also 
   - protect and defend us all, 
          so that what has been well begun, 
      as it has been his good pleasure 
          to have made a beginning 
             in such poor women as we are, 
         may not prove a failure 
             through our weakness. 
I implore you in His name, 
   my sisters and my daughters, 
     - to pray to our Lord for this, 
    - let every one of those 
           who shall hereafter enter 
      look on herself 
            as if the primitive rule 
               of the order of the Virgin our Lady 
            had its beginning in her
    - never in any way consent 
            to any mitigation of it. 
  - that the door is opened 
        for very great laxity 
     by very little things, 
  - that the world may come in 
        before you are aware of it. 
    that what you possess in peace 
 has been wrought in poverty and toil; 
and if you look deeply into it 
   you will see 
    - that most of these houses 
        were generally founded,
              not by man, 
              but by the mighty hand of God, 
   - that His Majesty is most ready 
         to carry on the work He has begun 
       if we do not hinder Him. 
Where do you think 
    a poor woman like myself, 
         under obedience, 
              a farthing in the world, 
              any one to help her, 
     found the means to do so great a work ? 
My brother, 
   who helped in the foundation of Seville, had 
   some means, 
   courage, and
   good dispositions wherewith to help us,
 but he was then in the Indies, 
10. Exhortation to the nuns. 
Behold, my daughters, 
Behold the hand of God: 
He did not honour me in this 
  because of my illustrious birth; 
  in whatever light you may look upon it, 
   you will find it to be His work
It is not right 
  we should in any way impair it, 
even were it to cost us 
        our life, 
        our good name, and 
        our peace; 
still less when we have all these together,
   for life is to live 
    - in such a way as not to be afraid 
          of death, 
          of anything that may happen 
               while it lasts, 
     - in the possession 
          of  that continual joyfulness 
               which you now have all of you, 
         of this prosperity 
               that never can be greater, 
         consisting in the utter absence 
                of the fear of poverty, 
                or rather in the desire of it. 
   is there anything 
        with which you can compare
   the peace wherein you live, 
         whether inward or outward ? 
It is in your power to live and die in it 
   as you saw them die 
who have died in these houses. 
Then, if you always 
    pray God  to further this work, 
       having no confidence in yourselves
         — if you put your trust in Him, 
            and are courageous — 
      seeing that His Majesty loves it. 
He will not withhold His mercy. 
11.  No one to be refused 
           because she is poor.  
Have no fear 
  that you will ever be in want of  anything; 
Never fail to receive those 
    who come to be nuns 
             merely because they are 
               without worldly goods, 
     - if  they are virtuous, 
     - when you are satisfied 
             with their good desires 
               and their abilities, 
     - they come not simply 
              for a place to live in, 
       but rather to serve God 
              in greater  perfection; 
for God, on the other hand, 
   will give you that twofold 
which you should have had with them. 
I have had great experience in this. 
His Majesty knows well 
   that, so far as I can remember, 
I never failed to receive one 
   because she was poor, 
       provided I  was pleased with her 
   in other respects. 
They are my witnesses, 
    and they are many, 
who have been received 
    simply for God, 
as you know yourselves. 
And I can assure you 
  that my joy was 
     not so great 
         when I received those 
              that brought much with them 
     as it was 
          when I received those 
              who came for God's sake alone: 
on the contrary 
   I had fears about the former, 
while those who were poor 
   cheered my spirit, and 
   gave me so much pleasure 
        as to make me weep for joy: 
    that is the truth. 
   if when we had to buy and build our houses, 
        He helped us also therein, 
why should He not help us 
   now that we have wherewithal to live ? 
Believe me, my daughters, 
   you will suffer loss there 
where you think you are gaining. 
12. How nuns ought to dispose 
         of their wealth. 
When one comes with means, 
   under no obligations 
         to bestow them on others, 
        who perhaps need them not, 
it is right she should give them to you 
   by way of  alms;                                   [17] 
I confess that 
    if she did otherwise 
she would show but little affection for you. 
Always, however, make her who comes
    understand that she must act herein 
         as learned men shall advise her 
    for the grreater service of  God, 
    for it would be a serious evil 
         if we claimed the property of anyone 
    that came to us for any other end 
         but that. 
We make a much greater gain 
    — that is, we act 
            in much greater perfection — 
    when she does 
          that which is a duty to God, 
    than by receiving 
          anything she may bring with her, 
for we all of us have no aim, 
  and God grant we may never have, 
other than the service of His Majesty 
  in and by everything. 
13. The Saint confesses her integrity. — 
Though I am,  myself,
    a wretched and wicked woman, 
I say this to His honour and glory, 
and that you may have joy 
   in the way wherein these His houses 
        have been founded 
 —  never in treating about them, 
       never in the doing of anything 
           that had to be done in relation to them 
       even when I thought 
           I should not prosper with any of them   
                 unless I turned aside 
                     from my intention,
      (never) would I in any way do, 
        nor have I done  anything whatever, 
              if I but knew it, 
       that swerved by a hair's breadth 
              from the will of our Lord, 
       according to the directions 
              of my confessors, 
       who, since I have been thus employed 
         have always been, as you know, 
              very learned men and 
              great servants of God; 
       — I am speaking of these foundations —
    and I do not remember 
         that I ever even thought 
             of following any other course. 
14. And the hand of God.  
Perhaps I deceive myself
    — I may have done much amiss 
            of which I am not aware, 
         and my imperfections  
            may be innumerable — 
I am speaking about myself only 
   as I know myself; 
our Lord who is the true judge, knows it; 
and I, too, see very clearly 
   that the work was 
         not mine, 
         but God's
              Who willed it should be done; 
   and, as it was His own work,
          He helped me, 
   and was thus gracious unto me. 
I say this on purpose 
 that you, my children, may 
   - learn that you are 
       the more indebted to Him,
   - know that the houses have been founded 
       without wronging anybody to this day. 
Blessed be He Who 
     has done it all, and 
     quickened the charity of those 
         who have helped us ! 
May it please His Majesty to
      protect us always,  and 
      give us His grace, 
  that we may not be ungrateful 
       for such great mercies ! 

15. The hardships endured by the Saint. 
You have seen already, my daughters, 
   that we had some hardships to bear, 
but I believe that I have described 
     only the least of them, 
for if they were to be recounted in detail 
   it would be very wearisome: 
      of  the roads and missing them; 
      of rain and snow, and 
      more than all, my scanty health; 
      and once 
               — I know not
                    if I have spoken of it  —     [18]
     it was our first day's journey 
          from Malagon to Veas 
           — I happened to be ill of a fever, 
               and in many other ways 
                   at the same time, 
          so that when I 
             considered the length of the journey, 
             beheld the state I was in, 
          I thought of Elias, our father, 
             flying from the face of Jezabel, 
          and said, 
            'Lord, have I the strength to bear it ? 
             Look Thou to it.' 
The truth is, that 
   when His Majesty saw I was weak 
He delivered me on the instant 
    from the fever and the other illnesses; 
  and ever since, 
        whenever I call it to mind, 
  I have been thinking 
     that it happened so 
        because an ecclesiastic, 
            a servant of God, 
        came to me at the time; 
     and perhaps it was so; 
     at least I was delivered in a moment 
       from all my sufferings, 
             outward and inward. 
16. Her affection for the nuns.  
When I had my health 
  I  bore all my bodily toils with joy. 
Then, I had not a little to bear 
  when I had to bear with, 
            as it was necessary 
            I should in every place, 
      - the tempers of many people, 
      - in leaving behind 
             my daughters and my sisters, 
        when I had to go away 
             from one place to another: 
   that was not, I may tell you, 
        the least of my crosses, 
    for I love them so much 
          — especially when I considered 
               that I might never see them again, 
               saw them sorrowing and weeping; 
     for, though they are detached 
          from everything else, 
     God has not given them 
          this kind of detachment, 
         perhaps that it might be 
               a greater anguish for me; 
     neither was I detached from them,  

         though I strove
            to the utmost of my power 
         not to show it, 
         and even rebuked them; 
       but it was of no use, 
          for the love they have for me 
       is great and real, 
       as may be clearly seen in many ways. 
17. The monasteries founded 
          with the sanction of the General.  
You have also heard 
    that these monasteries were founded 
not only with the permission 
    of the most reverend our father-general, 
but by an express precept or commandment 
    subsequently given. 
This is not all, 
   for he wrote to me to say 
       of the foundation of each house 
   that it gave him the very greatest pleasure 
       when the foundations 
            I have spoken of 
       were made. 
Certainly, the greatest relief to me 
    in all my troubles 
was to see the joy they gave to him, 
    for I felt that I was pleasing our Lord 
        when I was pleasing him, 
    for he is my superior, 
     besides, I have a great affection for him. 
18. The foundations stopped.  
Either His Majesty was pleased 
   to give me some rest at last, 
or Satan was vexed 
   because so many houses were founded 
        for the service of our Lord. 
It is well known 
   that it was not the will 
       of our father-general, 
for on my begging him, 
        a few years before, 
   not to order me to found any more houses 
     he wrote back 
       that he would not do so, 
       because his desire was 
         that I should found as many houses 
       as I had hairs on my head.                 [19]
Before I came away from Seville 
there was brought to me 
       from the general chapter,                   [20]
           which I think ought to 
       have highly considered 
           the Increase of the order, 
  a decree of the definitory enjoining me 
      not only to make no more foundations, 
      but also, on no account whatever,
         to leave the house 
            I should choose to dwell in, 
        which was something like 
            sending me to prison,                   [21]
   for there are no nuns 
      whom the provincial may not, 
       when necessary for the good of the order, 
    send from one place to another 
          — I mean, 
               from one monastery to another. 
   And the most grievous thing was this 
    — our father-general 
                was displeased with me, 
          certainly not with reason, 
          but on account of the reports of persons
              who had given way to passion; 
          and this it was that gave me pain. 
At the same time
     two other and very grave charges 
       were brought against me, 
     but they were not true.                          [22] 
19. The Saint's joy. 
I tell you, my sisters, 
    that you may behold
        the compassion of our Lord, 
    that His Majesty ceases not 
        to defend those who desire to serve Him,
    that this 
         not only did not distress me, 
         but gave me such unexpected joy 
            that I could not control it, 
         so that I am not surprised 
            at what King David did 
             before the ark of our Lord;           [23] 
I wished then to do nothing else, 
   for my joy was such 
that I could not hide it. 
What the reason was 
    I know not, 
 for in the other slanders and contradictions
    nothing of the kind happened; 
One at least of the charges 
   was most serious.                                 [24] 
The prohibition to make foundations, 
    if it had not been for the displeasure 
          of the most reverend general, 
    would have been a great comfort to me, 
and what I often longed for was
  that I might end my life in peace; 
   however, they 
         who obtained that prohibition 
     were not thinking of this, 
         for they thought they were causing me 
             the greatest affliction in the world; 
         they had probably other good intentions. 
20. The Saint rejoiced in her troubles.  
Sometimes, too, 
  I had a joy 
       in the contradictions and reproaches 
           I met with 
       while employed 
            in making these foundations; 
        some persons were against me 
             with good intentions, 
        others had other reasons, 
          but I do not remember 
          that I ever felt so great a joy as this 
            in any trouble that befell me         [25]

I confess that at any other time 
     any one of the three trials 
that came upon me all at once 
     would have been trial enough for me. 
I believe 
   that my chief source of joy lay in this
       — I thought 
       that, as creatures thus repaid me, 
          I must have pleased my Creator, 
      for I know 
        that he 
             who will take his pleasure 
                   in the things of earth 
                   in the praise of men 
          will be greatly deceived, 
             to say nothing of the little 
                   he may gain by it ; 
         men are 
             of one opinion today, 
             of another tomorrow; 
        that of which 
             they once speak well
             they soon revile. 
Blessed be Thou, my God and my Lord, 
    who never changest, never ! 
Whosoever shall serve Thee to the end 
     shall live without end in Thy eternity. 
21. Reasons of her writing.  
I began to write 
     the history of these foundations 
at the commandment 
    of the Father-Master Ripalda 
        of the Society of Jesus, 
    as I said when I began; 
He was then rector 
    of the college in Salamanca 
and I used to confess to him. 
Some of it I wrote 
   when I was sojourning there 
in the monastery of the glorious S. Joseph, 
in the year 1573. 
I then refrained from writing 
   because of my many occupations, 
   and I would not go on with it 
      because I was not then confessing to him 
             — he had gone to another part 
                  of the country —
                and also 
       because it cost me 
          so much toll and labour to write, 
      though I look on my labour 
          as well bestowed 
      because always under obedience. 
 When I had made up my mind 
      to write no more 
  I was ordered to finish the work.      [26]
      by the father the commissary apostolic, 
  who is at present  the Fray Jerome Gratian 
      of the Mother of God. 
22. Interrupted and resumed.  
I told him how few opportunities 
  I had for writing, 
and gave him other reasons 
  which suggested themselves to me
     — for I spoke as one 
          whose obedience is miserable — 
    and that it was also a great burden 
       added to the others I had to bear; 
  nevertheless he commanded me 
      to finish it by degrees, 
      or when I could. 
I have done so,  
  submitting myself in everything 
      to those who, 
         finding therein anything amiss, 
      shall blot it out, 
  because perhaps that which to me 
     appears very good 
     may be said badly. 
23. Ceases from writing. — 
 I finish today, the vigil of S. Eugenius, 
   14th November 1576, 
  in the monastery of S. Joseph, Toledo, 
where I am staying 
   by the order of the commissary apostolic, 
  Fray Jerome Gratian of the Mother of God, 
      whom we now have 
   as the superior 
       of the barefooted Carmelites, 
           men and women, 
       of the primitive rule, 
   being at the same time 
      visitor of those who keep 
         the rule of the mitigation in Andalucia, 
       to the honour and glory 
          of Jesus Christ our Lord, 
   who reigneth and will reign for ever. 
24. And asks for prayers. 
I implore the sisters and brothers 
    who shall read this, 
for the love of our Lord, 
  to pray to our Lord for me, 
   that He would have compassion upon me,
      deliver me from the pains of purgatory, 
   and, if I shall merit an entrance thereinto, 
      let me have the fruition of Himself. 
As you are not to see this so long as I live, 
  let me have some advantage 
after I am dead 
  from the weariness of writing 
  from the great desire I had while writing 
      to be able to say something 
   that might be a comfort to you, 
      if it should be thought right 
      for you to read it.                             [27] 

           Foot Notes:
    Ch. xxii. 
   Dona Catalina de Otalora 
     was the wife of the licentiate Munoz
       a member of the council of the Indies 
       and of the council of Castille. 
    The young ladies were 
         Dona Francisca de Sarjosa
            a cousin of Dona Catalina; 
          Dona Francisca de Moya * 
          Dona Francisca de Tauste 
               [ Ribera, iii. 7]. 
    * The daughter of Don Rodrigo de Moya 
        was called 
        Dona Francisca de Cuellar
      as the daughters did not always 
         bear their father's name. 

     Her mother was Dona Luisa de Avila

     She was twenty-four years old 
      when she took the habit, in 1576,    
       professed in October 1577, 
       died in August 1605.
       [ Fra Antonio of S. Joseph]. 
  Tres doncellas nobles 
     [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xliv. i]. 
     ( Blog note -" three noble maidens")
  When they went to live with Dona Catalina
     they had not yet made up their mind 
   which order to choose. 
    Father Leiva, a Jesuit,  spoke to them 
        of S. Teresa and her convents. 
     Ch. xxiv. 2. 
  Caravaca is in the old kingdom of Murcia, 
     and famous for a miraculous cross. 
  The contract whereby the young ladies
    bound themselves to contribute, 
       one 8,000, 
       another 1,000, 
       the third 2,500 and 
       the fourth 2,000 ducats, 
    bears the date of  10th March 1575
      [ Oeuvres, iv. 4.20 ] 
  The jurisdiction of Caravaca 
    was divided between 
          the knights and 
          the bishop of Cartagena, 
            at this time Don Gomez Tapeta
    but the Saint did not trouble the bishop, 
    and afterwards, when the vicar-gencral 
        of Don Gomez raised some difficulties 
    about the monastery, the Saint 
         wrote from Seville, 19th February 1576,
     to Don Rodrigo de Moya, 
     to tell him that he need not be distressed 
       at the interference of the vicar-general. 
      The monastery was safe 
         (note of Fray Antonio 
         on Letter of 19th February 1576). 
   Philip II, 
      for five years king of England, 
       as husband of Mary the queen. 
 Fray Jerome was visitor apostolic 
    of the Carmelites of Andalucia, 
 and provincial of the barefooted Carmelites, 
     men and women, of the Reform 
 of S. Teresa in Castille and Andalucia, 
  by delegation of the nuncio, 
  who gave him the title of provincial 
       since 3rd August 1575.
    This was a beginning of the separation
    which afterwards took place 
   between the friars of the mitigation and
    those of S. Teresa. 
    Of the latter 
       Fray Jerome was the first provincial, 
      but that election was made 
                 4th March 1581 
       [Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xli. 2 ; 
                         bk. v. ch. ix. 5]. 
 The Saint was in Valladolid 
       4th January 1575, 
  on the point of starting for Avila, 
   where she intended to stay 
         but a day or two, 
    going thence to Toledo. 
    (See her letter to Don Teutonio, 
         of 6th January 1575). 
  She must therefore 
     have made a longer stay in Avila 
  than she intended 
     if the messenger of Dona Catalina 
        found her there  in February 1575.
  This was the dispute between the old friars
       and those of her reform. 
               (See below, § 18.) 
    Of Seville. 
  The Saint had first appointed
     Mary of S. Joseph (Salazar) 
     prioress of Caravaca 
   but ultimately destined her for Seville 
    and chose Anne of S. Albert 
         (prioress) for Caravaca
    who was sent from Seville, 
      where she was at this time, 
     and was to take with her from Malagon
        the nuns whom the Saint had left there 
      for the foundation in Caravaca. 
    These were 
         Barbara of the Holy Ghost
                 sub-prioress ; 
         Anne of the Incarnation
         Juana of  S. Jerome, and 
         Catharine of the Assumption
                [ Ribera, iii. 7]. 
     Anne of  S. Albert 
     was the daughter of 
       Juan de Avila  
          ( Alonzo de Avila  ? 
      Ana de Salcedo
     born in Malagon, and 
      made her profession 
          in the monastery there in the year 1569. 
   There are three letters among those 
       of S. John of the Cross 
    addressed to her as Prioress of Caravaca
      and from the last of them 
    she seems to have been prioress in 1588. 
      She died in 1624. 

   Father Ambrose of S. Peter, 
        sub-prior of Almodovar
   and another whose name is not on record. 
   They arrived 18th December 1575. 
  On the first day of the year, 
    which is that 
         of the Circumcision and
         of the Name of Jesus, 
   under the patronage 
       of the glorious S. Joseph .
        [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xliv. 2]. 
  She put on the habit, however,
     in about two or three months after  this, 
   when Fray Jerome came to visit the house,
      receiving it at his hands. 
  The names of the three were
       Dona Francisca de Cuellar 
               (Frances of the Cross); 
       Dona Francisca de Tauste 
              (Frances of S. Joseph); 
       Dona Francisca de Sarjossa 
              (Frances of the Mother of God), 
     the first two made profession 
               27th October 1577, 
     while the third 
          who had for a while 
                 abandoned her design, 
             made it 1st June 1578. 
  The Saint was always willing 
      to admit the poor in their poverty, 
   but she was inexorable with the wealthy 
    who attempted to 
         place their children in the monasteries
         and retained their dowers. 
    In a letter to the prioress of Seville 
        of 26th September 1576 
    she forbids the reception 
         of Blanca of Jesus Maria
     without her dower, 
     though she was the daughter 
          of Dona Leonor de Valera
     who had given alms to the house
          when it was in distress. 
     The Saint says 
          that the father was a man 
      who would never give a farthing
          if he could help it. 
     His greed may be the explanation 
      of his wife's conduct in employing others 
         to administer her alms. 
          [ See ch. xxv. i, note #1 ]  
  The Saint made no allusion to it. 
         See ch. xxii. 
  See letter of 4th October 1578, 
     addressed to F. Hernandez, S.J. 
  In that letter the Saint says, 
   'Our Father-General, 
        in a letter written to me 
     when I had begged him not to bid me 
          make any more foundations, 
      says that he wished me 
           to found as many monasteries 
                as I had hairs on my head.' 
  A general chapter of the order 
      was held in Piacenza 
       22nd May 1575, Whitsunday, 
   in which the general published 
        the brief of  Gregory XIII 
    by which the powers of the Dominican 
      visitors were recalled. 
    At the same time a decree was made 
      for the suppression of  the houses 
    in Andalucia which were founded 
       for the observance of the 
              primitive rule, 
    and Fray Jerome Tostado of Portugal 
      was appointed by the general 
            to execute the decree 
      [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xl. i, 5]. 
  At this chapter 
    neither Castille nor Andalucia 
     were represented. 
 It had been decided in 1532 
    that owing to their smallness 
  the three provinces of 
      Castille, Andalucia and Portugal 
   should take it in turns 
      to send representatives, 
  so that instead of three 
    only one member of each should attend, 
  namely, at the next chapter 
   the provincial of Castille with 
      a socius from Andalucia 
    and one from Portugal: 
   at the following 
     the provincial of Andalucia 
   with a socius from Castille
    and one from Portugal, and so on. 
   However, at the chapter of 1539 
    none of these provinces were represented, 
    and at 1548 there appeared only 
    the socius from Andalucia. 
    In 1564 the provincial of Castille, 
     Angel de Salazar, was accompanied 
    by Caspar Nieto of Andalucia. 
   As the chapters had been 
      held very irregularly 
   it was then decided that the next should 
     take place in 1570, 
    but when the time came
         the general (Rubeo) postponed it, 
     summoning it later on for Pentecost 1572, 
    but owing to the death of the Pope 
         (S. Pius V) 
    which occurred when Rubeo himself 
       was already on his way to Paris 
     where the chapter was to take place and
        whither a number of capitulars had 
      actually proceeded,
       he again countermanded it 
      causing thereby a great deal of discontent. 
     At length, on Pentecost 1575 
        the fathers assembled at Piacenza, 
      but there was no one from the three 
         provinces in question. 
     The provincial of Andalucia, 
       Fray Agustin Suarez, and the socius 
     from Castille, Fray Martin Garcia, 
     were delayed on the sea and arrived only
      in time to sign the acts of the chapter 
      after all the proceedings
         had been concluded. 
      The other socius, from Portugal, 
         had arrived a little earlier, 
        but as he was in no way concerned 
          with the Reform and probably 
        knew  but little of it his absence or
             presence made no difference. 
       Consequently there was no official 
          representative to say a word
       in favour of the Discalced friars 
            and nuns, 
        no one who was acquainted 
          with the real course of events, 
        and the chapter had no better evidence
        to act upon than the unchallenged 
           complaints of the Andaluclans. 
  The general ordered S. Teresa to choose 
     some one monastery to reside in 
         for the future, 
    which she was not to leave 
        without permission. 
    The order was sent to the provincial 
      of Castille, Fray Angel de Salazar, 
     who transmitted It to Fray Miguel de Ulloa
      in Seville. 
    The latter kept it by him, 
      and did not make it known to the Saint 
     till after he had learned 
        that she was aware 
     it had come into his hands. 
    As it was close upon Christmas 
      when Fray Miguel communicated 
    the order to S. Teresa, 
      her immediate superior told her 
     that the general did not mean 
      to put her to the grave inconvenience 
      of travelling in the depth of winter, 
    and charged her to remain in Seville 
      for the present. 
      Fray Jerome, moreover, 
         had the right  to do so, 
             even if the general had meant 
              to have the order executed at once, 
       for he was the delegate of the nuncio, 
         and his powers came 
            from a different authority. 
      The Saint gives an account of her conduct 
         to the general in a letter 
       written at the beginning of February. 
      See letter of 24th July 1576,
         (advices) where, 
       as a proof of her obedience 
           and reverence for him,
      she tells him that, 
       though the provincial told her 
          she might appeal to His Holiness 
             against his decree, 
       she would obey the general 
           and seek no relief, 
       but submit herself to his rule. 
  One of the charges was,
     that she travelled in a way, unbecoming 
       poverty, from Seville to Toledo, 
   when she returned into her monastery
       in the latter place. 
    But she travelled with her brother, 
        no doubt at his expense, 
     and his generosity was made a crime
        in her
             [ De la Fuente]. 
   It is probable enough 
       that Don Lorenzo travelled in some state, 
   for the Saint, shortly after this journey, 
     tells him that he was much 
        inclined to pomp, and that he showed it.
  The other charge may have been 
      that which Yepez refers to in his letter 
  to Fray Luis de Leon, 
   namely, that 
   "the last thing to be said of any woman"  
               was said of the Saint ---
   "lo ultimo que de una mujer se puede decir"
        [ Fuente, Obrns, vi. 128, n. 12].
  2 Reg. vi. 14.. 
    Et David saltabat totis viribus 
           ante Dominum. 

  Blog note: (joyfully)
 "And David danced with all his might 
   before the Lord"
  The Saint was accused of heresy, 
      and this is probably 
  what she refers to. 
  A postulant was received 
     of whom her friends spoke highly, 
  and the Saint observed
     that they would lose their credit 
   if she did not work miracles. 
  She was given to melancholy,  
   and the Saint, finding her obstinate, 
  sent her away with another novice 
    who had made up her mind to follow her. 
   The poor woman denounced S. Teresa
      to the Inquisition, and a priest 
    whom the Saint had allowcd 
      to hear her confessions, 
     believing her story, 
       helped to bring the officials of the
      Inquisition into the monastery. 
   The charge was serious enough 
      at that time, 
    though to us it appears childish. 
    According to Father Gratian's memoirs,
     it had been thought wise
          to forbid the nuns, 
     lest the strain on their mind 
          should prove too severe, 
      to speak of spiritual matters 
          during the time of recreation. 
     One nun, however, yielding to habit, 
        happened to make one day 
     an exclamation : O God how I love Thee,
        or something to that effect. 
      Being rather scrupulous 
          she became frightened as though 
     she had broken her vow of obedience. 
      She therefore asked to see her confessor 
        who at first told her it was no sin
       to say such a thing, 
        but being told it was forbidden 
          in this convent 
        he, without any further inquiry, 
       found nothing better to do 
         than to hasten to the inquisitors 
        with the news that the Carmelite nuns 
           were forbidden to love God. 
       Absurd as the charge was,
        it led to an extensive inquiry 
          into the customs and rules 
        observed in the convent. 
        Accordingly next morning 
           Fray Jerome, going to see the Saint, 
         found the house surrounded 
           with the men of the holy office, 
           with others inside 
              searching the monastery, 
         and the poor priest at the corner 
            of the street waiting to see 
                all the nuns carried to prison.
       Fray Jerome, in the greatest alarm 
          as we learn from a letter of the end 
       of November 1576, went in and found 
          the Saint cheerful and joyous. 
        The inquisitors, 
            satisfied with their search, 
         severely reprimanded the poor priest, 
        and begged the Father 
             Rodrigo Alvarez, S.J., 
          to examine the spirit of the Saint. 
         Relation viii. was written 
           on this occasion and 
         submitted to Father Alvarez 
           [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xlvi. and xlvii.]. 
   See Life, ch. xxxi. 13. 
 The history of the foundation 
     of S. Joseph, Avila, 
   was written by direction 
      of Fray Garcia of Toledo, 
    and is inserted in the Life, 
      (chs. xxxii, ii-xxxvi.) 
    Then she was commanded 
        by Father Ripalda, S.J., 
      to write the history 
         of the other foundations,
     which she began to do in Salamanca 
        on the feast of S. Bartholomew, 1573 
         (prol. § 5), 
    and brought it down to the history 
       of the foundation in Alba de Tormes; 
    and thus the first part ends with ch. xx
   When she was staying in Toledo, and 
        the foundations were interrupted 
           by command of the general and 
        the troubles that came 
            upon the whole order, 
      she was directed by Fray Jerome 
            to finish the book
      and she then added the rest, 
         beginning with ch. xxi
            down to the end of ch. xxvii.     
        [ Reforma, bk. v. ch. xxxvii. 4, 5.]
  Fray Jerome laid his command upon her 
       soon after her arrival in Toledo, 
   for on 24th July 1576 
      she writes to her brother Don Lorenzo,
         to send her the papers 
       she had already written. 
    And in another letter to Father Gratian 
        dated 5th October 1576, 
     the Saint says she was then going 
        to begin to write, 
     our Lord having told her 
    that it would be to the profit of many souls. 
  In the original MS. 
      preserved in the Escorial, 
   Relation x. is inserted here, 
       as also in the printed editions 
    prior to that of Don Vicente. 
    The remainder of the manuscript 
        is not divided into chapters, 
     but each foundation bears its proper title. 

            End of  Chapter 27 
                     of the 
          Book of the Foundations
             of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  

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