Wednesday, September 7, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Chapter 24 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

   The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
 of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  
          CHAPTER 24         XXIV


        Chapter 24 Contents
  The Foundation 
     Of S. Joseph Of Carmel 
      In The City Of Seville 
   1. The Saint's joy 
         in Fray Jerome's visit. — 
   2. He is made visitor of  the Order. — 
   3. The Saint leaves Veas for Seville. — 
   4. Ill on the road. — 
   5. Suffering from fever. — 
   6. Risk in crossing a river. — 
   7. Difficulty of entering Cordova. — 
   8. Church full of people. — 
   9. Difficulties in Seville. — 
 10. More difficulties. — 
 11. Destitute condition of the nuns. — 
 12. The Saint nearly leaves Seville. — 

 13. But waits. — 
 14. The archbishop relents. 
1. The Saint's joy in Fray Jerome's visit.   
1
When the Father-Master 
   Fray Jerome Gratian 
came to see me in Veas                           [1]
  as I have just said                                    [2] 
we had never  met before, 
   though I had wished it much;
 letters, however, had occasionally 
    passed between us. 
I rejoiced extremely 
   when I heard he was in town, 
   for I was longing to see him 
       because of the good accounts 
   I had had of him; 
but I rejoiced still more 
  when I had begun to converse with him, 
for he pleased me so much 
  that I did not think 
     that they who had spoken 
         so highly of  him 
     really knew him at all. 
I was in great trouble at the time, 
  but when I saw him 
our Lord seemed to show me 
  all the good he was to do for us, 
and therefore during those days 
  I felt such exceeding 
      comfort and happiness 
  that I was in truth astonished at myself. 
At that time, however, 
his authority did not reach 
  beyond Andalucia;                                    [3] 
but when he was in Veas,
  the nuncio sent for him,                          [4] 
and then gave him jurisdiction 
  over the barefooted friars and nuns 
of the province of Castille                          [5] 
My  spirit so exulted in this 
  that during those days 
I could not thank our Lord enough, 
  and I had no wish to do anything else. 
2. He is made visitor of  the Order.  
2
At this time 
 they obtained the licence 
   for making  a foundation in Caravaca,    [6]
 but it was not such 
   as I required for my purpose; 
and it became, therefore, 
   necessary for them 
to send again to the court, 
for I wrote to the foundress 
   that the foundation would be made 
only on certain conditions, 
   not therein expressed; 
and thus it became necessary
   to apply to the court again. 
It was very inconvenient for me
   to remain there so long, 
and I wished to return to Castille; 
but, as the Father Fray Jerome, 
        to whom the monastery was now subject 
         — for he was commissary over
              the whole province of Castille —    [7]
  was there at the time, 
   and as I could do nothing 
       without his consent, 
   I communicated on the subject with him. 
He thought 
    - that if I were once gone 
          there would be an end 
         of the foundation of Caravaca, 
               and also 
    - that it would be greatly 
         for the service of God 
       to found a house in Seville                 [8]
      which to him seemed very easy, 
          because persons in authority there, 
       and willing to give him a house at once, 
          had asked it of him.'' 
          _______________
       [ Blogger's note
        "porque se lo habían pedido algunas  
        personas que podían y tenían muy bien 
           para dar luego casa"
        because  other persons asked him 
           who had very much 
         and (could) were able  
            to give them a house at that time.
         __________________
The Archbishop of Seville, too,                     [9]
   was so well disposed 
towards the order 
   that he believed 
         he would be greatly pleased, 
   and accordingly it was agreed 
         that the prioress and the nuns 
   whom I was to take to Caravaca 
         should go to Seville. 
I had always resolutely refrained, 
    for certain reasons, 
from making any foundations in Andalucia, 
and if  I had known 
   when I went thither 
that Veas was in the province of Andalucia
   I should not have gone at all. 
Though the place is not in Andalucia, 
   I think it is four or five leagues distant 
from the boundaries of that country: 
it is, however, in the province, 
  and that is the source of the mistake. 
But when I saw 
  that it was the will of my superior 
I  yielded at once, 
  for our Lord has given me the grace 
to think that my superiors 
   are always in the right. 
Yet I had made up my mind 
   to found a house elsewhere, 
and had some very grave reasons 
  for not going to Seville. 
  3. The Saint leaves Veas for Seville.  
3
Preparations for the journey 
   were made at once, 
for the heat was beginning. 
The commissary, Father Gratian, 
  went to the nuncio, 
       who had sent for him, and 
we to Seville                                         [10]
   with my good companions  
       Father Julian of Avila, 
      Antonio Gaytan, 
               and 
       a barefooted friar.                         [11]
We travelled in carriages well covered, 
   for that is ever our way of travelling, 
 and when we came to an inn 
    we took a room, good or bad 
          as it might be, 
    at the door of which a sister received 
         what we had need of, 
     and even those who travelled with us 
          never entered it. 
We made all haste we could, 
   yet we reached Seville 
      ony on the Thursday                         [12]
   before the feast of the Most Holy Trinity, 
      having suffered on the road 
           from the heat, 
      which was  very great; 
for, though we did not travel 
   on the holy days, 
I must tell you, my sisters, 
that, as the sun in its strength 
   struck the carriages, 
        to go into them 
   was like going into Purgatory. 
Sometimes by thinking 
      of  hell, 
at other times
      that we were doing and suffering 
             something for God, 
  the sisters travelled 
      in great cheerfulness and joy, 
  for the six sisters 
      who were with me 
   had such courage
 that I think I could have ventured 
   to go with them
       into ...dangerous  lands  
  and that they would have been so brave 
       as to do so; 
  or, to speak more correctly,
  that our Lord would have made them 
       brave enough to suffer for Him, 
   for that was 
        their desire 
               and 
        their conversation, 
     being exceedingly given to prayer 
        and mortification, 
for, as they were to live so far away, 
I took care they should be such 
    as were fitted for the work;
and all my care was necessary, 
    so great were the troubles that arose, 
some of which, 
    and they were the heaviest, 
I will not speak of, 
    because it might touch certain persons. 
  4. Ill on the road. 
4
One day before Pentecost 
  God sent them a very heavy cross, 
which was my falling
   into a very violent fever. 
They called upon God, 
  and that, I believe, was the cause
      of its going no further, 
for I never had before in my whole life
   a fever of that kind
 that did not become much worse. 
It was so violent 
  that I seem to have fallen into a lethargy, 
so unconscious was I. 
They threw water over my face,
  but it was so warm, 
because of the heat, 
  that it gave me hardly any refreshment at all. 
I cannot help telling you 
  of the poor lodging 
we had in this our need; 
they gave us a small room 
    like a shed, 
which had no window, 
   into which the sun poured 
whenever the door was opened. 
You must remember 
   that the heat there 
 is not like that of Castille, 
    being much more oppressive. 
  5. Suffering from fever.  
5
They laid me on a bed, 
  but as it was so uneven 
being high on one side 
  and low on the other 
I would have preferred 
   being laid on the floor. 
I could not lie on it, 
for it seemed as if made of sharp stones. 
What illness is ! 
In health 
   everything is easy to bear. 
At last I thought it best 
    to rise and go on, 
for it seemed to me 
    easier to bear the heat of the sun 
in the open country 
    than in that little room. 
Oh, those poor souls in hell ! 
    for them there is no change; 
       for that seems a relief, 
     even if it be 
        from one suffering to another. 
It has happened to me 
    to have a very violent pain in one side, 
and to find an apparent relief 
    in changing my place, 
though I had another pain as violent 
    in the other: 
it was so now. 
I was not at all distressed, 
   so far as I remember, at my illness; 
the sisters felt it much more
   than I did. 
It was the good pleasure of our Lord 
  that its extreme violence 
did not last more than one day. 
  6. Risk in crossing a river. 
6
A little before, 
I do not know if it was two days, 
   something else befel us 
that placed us in no slight danger 
when crossing the Guadalquivir in a boat.     
                                                                 [13] 
When they had to ferry
   the carriages across 
they could not keep close to the rope, 
and they had therefore 
  to make a tack in the river, 
although in tacking also the rope 
  was of some help to them;
however, it happened
 that those who held the rope 
    either let it go 
    or lost it, 
 I do not know which, 
and the boat went off                           
    with the carriages 
        away from the rope 
        and without oars, 
I was more concerned 
    for the distress of the ferryman 
than about the danger; 
   we began to pray, 
           and 
   the boatmen to shout. 
A nobleman in a neighbouring castle was
          looking on, and 
          pitying our condition, 
   sent people to our succour, 
 for at that moment 
     we had not yet lost the rope, 
 and our brethren with all their might 
     were holding on to it; 
  the force of the current, however, 
     was too much for them, 
  and some of them were even thrown down. 
A little boy of the ferryman, 
    whom I shall never forget, 
stirred up my devotion exceedingly, 
he must have been, I think, 
   about ten or eleven years old ; 
his distress at the sight 
  of his father in trouble 
was such as to make me give praise 
   to our Lord. 
But, as His Majesty 
    ever tempers our trials 
with His compassion, 
   so it was at this time, 
   for the boat struck on a sandbank, 
   on one side of which 
      the water was shallow, 
   whereby they could come to our relief. 
We should have found it 
   very hard to recover our road, 
because it was now night, 
if  one who had come from the castle 
  had not become our guide. 
I did not intend 
    to speak of these things, 
which are of little importance, 
 for I have said enough of the difficulties 
 we met in our journeys 
    — I have been pressed much 
         to speak more at length. 
  7. Difficulty of entering Cordova. 
7
A trouble far greater 
  than those I have mentioned 
befell us on the last day of Whitsuntide.   [14] 
We hurried on 
    so as to reach Cordova 
early in the morning, 
   that we might hear mass 
unseen by anybody. 
We were directed to go 
   for greater retirement
 to a church 
   on the other side of the bridge. 
When we were ready to cross 
   we were without the permission 
necessary for carriages 
which only the governor could give, 
and as people were not yet up
   two hours passed away 
before it was obtained, 
and a great crowd came about us 
   to find out who were the travellers. 
We did not care much about this, 
   for as we were perfectly concealed  
they could not see us. 

When permission to cross was given 
  the carriages could not pass 
through the gate of the bridge; 
it was found necessary 
   to use the saw, 
           or something of that kind, 
          I know not what, 
  and that occasioned the waste
         of more time. 
  8. Church full of people. 
8
At last when we reached the church 
  in which father Julian of Avila 
was to say mass 
  we found it full of  people, 
for it was dedicated to the Holy Ghos; 
it was a great solemnity, 
  and a sermon was preached; 
of this we knew nothing. 
When I saw it all 
I was greatly distressed, 
and thought it would have been better 
   for us to have gone on 
without hearing mass 
  than be in the midst of so much confusion. 
Father Julian of Avila 
   did not think so, 
and as he was a theologian 
    we had, all of us,  to yield to his opinion; 
all the others 
   who were with me 
would perhaps have followed mine, 
and it would have been very wrong. 
I do not know, however,
 that I should have trusted
    to my own opinion alone. 
We alighted close to the church; 
though nobody could see our faces, 
  for we always wore our large veils, 
   it was enough to disturb everybody 
       to see us 
         in them, 
               and 
         in our white mantles of coarse cloth  
               which we wear, 
                   and 
         in our  sandals of hemp: 
                so it happened. 
The surprise, indeed, 
    was great for me and for everybody: 
as for myself, 
  it must have taken away my fever altogether.
As we were entering the church,
   a good man came up to me, 
and made a passage for us 
   through the crowd. 
I begged him to take us 
     to one of the chapels;                         [15]
he did so, and closed it upon us, 
  nor did he leave us 
before he had led us out of the church again. 
A few days later he came to Seville, 
  and said to a father of our order 
that he thought 
  that because of the service 
      he had rendered us
   God had been very good to him,
      for a large estate, 
         of which he had no expectation, 
      had come into his possession. 
I tell you, my daughters, 
 that these were some 
      of the worst moments 
  I ever passed, 
though you may perhaps think nothing of it,
  for the people were in confusion 
as if bulls had broken in among them. 
I, therefore,  did not wait 
  for the usual hour for quitting that place,
                                 
  though there was no place near 
   where we could take our rest at noon: 
we found it under a  bridge.                 [16]
  9. Difficulties in Seville.  
 9
On reaching the house in Seville,        [17]
which the father Fray Mariano 
    had hired for us 
            — he had had directions to do so — 
     I thought everything was done; 
            for, as I said before,                    [18]
   the archbishop was very favourable 
      to the barefooted Carmelites, 
   and had occasionally written to myself 
      showing me great affection, 
   it was not enough however 
       to spare me much suffering, 
    for so God did will it. 
The archbishop is a great enemy 
   of all monasteries of nuns 
 founded in poverty, 
   and he has his reasons. 
The mischief, or, to speak more correctly, 
  the good, 
        so far as this foundation is concerned, 
    lay in silence on this point; 
 for if they had told him all 
    before I had set out on my journey 
 I am certain he never 
   would have given his consent. 
But the Father Commissary 
    and Father Mariano, 
  most fully persuaded 
     - that he would give it, 
     - that my coming would be 
           a very great pleasure to him, 
                      and 
     - that they were doing him 
          a very great service in bringing me, 
     said nothing to him beforehand, 
and as I was saying, 
   they might have committed 
         a great mistake 
            if they had told him,
     thinking they were doing right; 
   for in founding the other monasteries 
    the first thing I sought 
      was the sanction of the ordinary, 
    according to the decree of the council.  [19]
   Here we not only took it for granted 
      but looked on the monastery 
    as a great service done to the archbishop, 
        as indeed it was, 
    and as he acknowledged afterwards; 
   only it was our Lord's good pleasure 
    that no foundation should be made 
      without great suffering for me,
            some in one way, 
            some in another. 
10. More difficulties.  
10
Having  reached the house hired for us, 
   as I said before, 
I meant to take possession at once, 
  as I was in the habit of doing,
 that we might say the divine office, 
but Father Mariano 
         — it was he who was there — 
began to suggest delay, 
  for he, to avoid giving me pain, 
     would not tell me everything. 
But, as his reasons were insufficient, 
   I saw where the difficulty lay
     — no permission had been given; 
and so he asked me 
    to allow the monastery to be endowed, 
          or something of that kind; 
    but I do not remember what it was. 
At last he told me
 - that the arch-bishop was not disposed 
       to sanction a monastery of nuns — 
 - that he had never sanctioned one 
        since he became archbishop, 
     nor even during the many years
        he had been here and in Cordova, 
    great servant of God as he is; 
    still less would he sanction a monastery
        founded in poverty, 
 11. Destitute condition of the nuns.   
11
This was nothing else but saying 
  that the monastery was not 
       to be founded at all. 
In the first place, 
it would have been very sad for me
    to do this in the city of  Seville; 
I might, however, have done it in those parts 
   of the country 
where I had founded monasteries endowed; 
it was in small villages 
 where they must have been so founded, 
  or not at all, 
because there were no other means 
   of sustaining them. 
In the next place, 
we had but one coin remaining
  after paying the expenses of the journey, 
and we had brought nothing with us 
  except that which we had on, 
          a tunic or two and a coif, 
  and what served as a covering for us 
      in the carriages; 
and then to send back 
   those who had come with us 
we should have had to borrow money, 
Antonio Gaytan had a friend there, 
  and he lent us some, 
and Father Mariano begged some 
  for furnishing the house; 
we had no house of our own, and 
  thus the foundation seemed impossible. 
12. The Saint nearly leaves Seville. 

12
The archbishop allowed us, 
but it must have been after urgent pressing 
  on the part of Mariano, 
to have Mass said 
  on the feast of the Most Holy Trinity,  [20]
 and that was the first
He sent a message to the effect
  that no bell was to be rung or even set up, 
but that was done already. 
We continued thus for a fortnight, 
  and I know I had made up my mind, 
but for the father-commissary 
   and father Mariano,
 to go back with my nuns, 
   with very little regret, to Veas,
 to make the foundation in Caravaca. 
I had much more to bear with 
   during those days 
           — how long it was I know not, 
                for I do not remember — 
          I think it was more than a month — 
for our immediate departure 
   would have been less intolerable, 
seeing that the existence of the monastery 
    had been made known already. 
Father  Mariano would never let me write 
   to the archbishop, 
but he won him over 
   by degrees himself, 
       and 
   by the help of  letters 
       of the Father-Commissary from Madrid. 
 13. But waits.  
13
One thing set me at case from much scruple;   
  this was that 
      Mass had been said 
             with the archbishop's leave, 
                     and 
      we always said our office in choir. 
He sent some people to visit me, 
and to tell me
 that he would come soon himself. 
It was one of his chaplains 
   whom he had sent to say the first mass. 
I saw clearly by this 
  that all that happened seemed 
       to have no other end 
  but to keep me in pain. 
The sources of that pain, 
 however, were 
   not in anything I or my nuns 
            had to suffer, 
   but in the distress of the Father-Commissary,
            who was much afflicted 
       because he had ordered me to go thither; 
   and his distress would have been very great
         if any mishap had occurred, 
    and there were many things 
         to bring that about. 
14. The archbishop relents. 
14
At this time, too, 
  the fathers of the mitigation came to know 
why the foundation had been made.          [21] 
I showed them my letters 
   from the most reverend our father- general.
They were satisfied with them, 
   but if they had known 
what the archbishop was doing 
   I do not think they would have been so; 
but of that they knew nothing, 
   for everybody believed
that the foundation gave him 
   very great joy and pleasure. 
It pleased God at last
 that he came to see us, 
when I spoke to him of the harm 
  he was doing us.
In the end he told me to do 
    what I liked, 
            and 
    as I liked, 
and from that time forth 
  was gracious and kind to us 
 on every occasion that offered.            [22]


          Foot Notes:
 [1]
   Fray Jerome made his profession 
         28th March 1573, 
    and on the 4th of August following 
    was created visitor of Andalucia 
        by Fray Baltasar  of Jesus
             Prior of Pastrana, 
     acting under the authority 
        of Fray Francis de Vargas
      Dominican and apostolic visitor 
        of the Carmelites in Andalucia. 
    Notwithstanding his office, 
     he would not leave his monastery 
      of Pastrana 
     without the permission of his superiors,
      and the visitor apostolic 
    Fray Pedro Fernandez 
      would not grant it.
    Fray Mariano (see ch. xvii. 5) 
     therefore applied to 
          Fray Angel de Salazar, the provincial, 
    for leave to go to Seville on business 
   which he had not settled 
     when he took the habit. 
   He applied also for leave 
      to be accompanied by any father 
   he might name. 
   Nothing was said of the real reason, 
      and Fray Jerome's name was not uttered. 
   The provincial gave the leave required. 
   Fray Mariano chose Fray Jerome 
       to be his companion, and 
   the two friars left Castille for Andalucia. 
    In Toledo, whither they went to see 
       Fray Antonio of Jesus, 
   they were overtaken by a mandate 
     of the general of the order, 
      commanding Fray Mariano 
          to become a priest; 
      and he, against his will, 
       was then made sub-deacon 
      on Ember  Saturday, in September. 
      They found Fray Francis de Vargas
         in his monastery of Granada, 
       being then provincial of his order, 
       who received them with great joy, and 
       gave all his powers to Fray Jerome
      The Carmelite provincial, having heard 
       of the ordination of Fray Mariano,
       and having some suspicion 
       that the journey was not meant 
          only for his private affairs, 
       recalled the two friars to Pastrana. 
       They replied 
             that they were ready to obey, 
       but were unable, 
       because under the obedience 
           of  Fray Francis de Vargas,
            the apostolic visitor. 
      They then hastened to Seville, 
       where Fray Jerome remained
        (not now subject to the provincial) 
         till he was sent for to Madrid, 
        because of the storm
           that began to threaten the reform. 
        He preached in Seville 
           during Lent, 1575, 
         and then, leaving the city, 
        arrived in Veas in April, 
        while the Saint was still there 
        [Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xxi, xxii.; 
           and ch. xxxvi. 3). 
______________________
 [2]
  [ Foundation: Ch. xxiii. I. ]
______________________
 [3]
  The Carmelite friars, 
      unwilling to be reformed, 
  obtained from Gregory XIII, 
   on the 3rd day of August 1574, 
   the recall of the powers 
       given to the two Dominican visitors 
    by S. Pius V, 
    so far as it enabled them 
        to visit monasteries 
   which the general or his vicars might visit. 
   But as the papal brief did not touch 
     the powers of the nuncio, 
   who was himself commissioned 
     to reform the order, the nuncio, 
    to save the reform from the ruin 
       that threatened it, 
     made Fray Francis de Vargas 
     and Fray Jerome of the Mother of God 
         visitors of Andalucia, 
      September  22nd of the same year. 
      To make this act safe, 
       the nuncio sent to Rome for advice, 
      and the secretary of His Holiness 
          told him that his powers 
       had been left intact 
         [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xxxix. 4 ]. 
___________________
 [4]
  Monsignore Nicholas Ormaneto
     one of the most zealous prelates 
      of  the sixteenth century. 
   He had been in England with Cardinal Pole, 
   and was afterwards present 
       at the council of Trent. 
    He was vicar-general of S. Charles 
        in Milan, 
    and afterwards Bishop of Padua. 
    He came to Spain in 1572, 
       and in June 1577 died 
     in such extreme poverty, 
       the fruits of continual almsgiving,
     that he had to be buried at the expense 
       of the king, Philip II, 
     who had the greatest respect for him, and
     who ordered his burial to be celebrated 
       with the magnificence due to a prelate 
          of such great worth 
           [ Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xxiii. i). 
____________________
 [5]
 Fray Jerome was in Seville 
   when the nuncio made him 
        visitor of  Andalucia
        in September 1574. 
   That first commission was not acted 
       on by Fray Jerome, 
    except in the commandment 
       he gave S. Teresa
             to found a house in Seville. 
    The second commission,
      by which he was made visitor of Castille
     also, was signed August 3, 1575, 
      after he had seen S. Teresa in Veas 

     The nuncio gave him powers to reform
         the order both in Andalucia and Castille,
     and thus armed he began 
         to make his visitation, 
     which in Castille lasted three months. 
     At this time he gave certain constitutions
       founded on the primitive rule, 
     and on the practices 
       of Fray Antonio of Jesus 
       and S. John of the Cross, 
     who had been in the order longer 
       than he had been 
           [  Reforma, bk. in. ch. xxxix. 3 
               ch. xli. 4 ; ch. xlii. I. 
              See above, ch. xxiii. 12 ]. 
_____________________
 [6]
  See Foundation: ch. xxvii.   (ch. 27 )
__________________
 [7] 
  The Carmelite fathers 
   who observed the mitigated rule, 
   when they saw  
     that Fray Jerome of the Mother of God 
   had obtained from Fray Francis de Vargas 
     powers to protect those 
       who kept the primitive rule, 
    suspected that he had also, as was the fact, 
    received powers to reform them. 
   They immediately begged the general
       in Rome to obtain from Gregory XIII 
    the revocation of the powers entrusted 
     to the two Dominican visitors, 
    and thereby those granted by one of them
       to Fray Jerome. 
    That was done, 
      but the general waited for the 
      publication of the brief till 2nd May 1575,
    when the general chapter of the order 
       was to meet at Piacenza. 
     This was known in Spain, 
      but, as the powers of the nuncio 
       were not touched by the briefs, 
       Ormaneto made Fray Jerome 
          visitor of Andalucia and Castille 
       [  Reforma bk. in. ch. xxxvi. I. 2. ] 
     Most of the previous editions, 
      and nearly all the translations, 
     including that of Fr. Bouix have 
       'province of Andalucia' 
     instead of  'province of Castille' ; 
    the French Carmelite nuns are of opinion 
     that this latter is due to a slip of the pen 
       of  S. Teresa, 
________________________
 [8]   See Ch. xxiv. III. 
  Fray Jerome stayed about three weeks 
      in Veas 
      (letter of 12th May 1575), 
  and commanded the Saint
     to ask our Lord 
   whether the foundation in Madrid 
     or that in Seville should be the next. 
   The Saint obeyed, 
      and the answer was Madrid. 
   Thereupon Fray Jerome bade her prepare 
      for that of Seville, 
    and the Saint began at once 
       to make her arrangements. 
    Two or three days afterwards 
        Fray Jerome asked her 
    why she obeyed him, 
         who was guided in the matter simply 
             by reasons of his own, 
      rather than our Lord, 
          who had revealed to her 
       that He wished her to go to Madrid. 
 She replied 
   - that she could not be so sure 
              of any revelation 
        as she was of his order, 
              and 
  - that it was her duty to obey him 
        as her immediate superior. 
 He ordered her to pray once more, 
 and then our Lord bade her 
     go to Seville 
    [ Tepes, ii. 28 ]. 
______________________
 [9] 
  Don Christobal de Rojas y Sandoval
    son of the Marquess de Denia, 
    born 26th July 1502, 
     was first bishop of Oviedo 
   in which quality he assisted 
      at the council of Trent. 
    Subsequently he was promoted 
      to the archbishopric of Cordova 
      and finally to that of Seville (1571). 
     From  the beginning of his administration 
       of the latter see 
     he experienced difficulties 
       with the Calced Carmelites 
     and therefore solicited through the king 
      the appointment by the Pope 
          of visitors apostolic
      On the establishment of Discalced friars
         at Seville he lavished on them 
           tokens of favour. 
      He died in 1580 in the reputation 
          of a strict disciplinarian 
      and a warm friend of the poor. 
         [ Oeuvres, iv. 36, note. ]
________________________
 [10]
  The Saint, according to her letter
         (see note #9) above) 
   intended to leave Veas 16th May 1575, 
     but did so only on the 18th, 
         Wednesday before Pentecost, 
     taking with her 
              Mary of S. Joseph, 
            Isabel of S. Francis,
            Mary of the Holy Ghost, 
            Isabel of S. Jerome, 
            Leonor of S. Gabriel, and 
            Anne of S. Albert. 
      The last was not to remain in Seville, 
        for the Saint intended her to be
              the prioress of Caravaca 
           [ Reforma, bk. in. ch. xxxvii. 3]. 
_____________________________
 [11] 
    He was an ecclesiastic, 
        native of Villarubia, 
     who had followed the Saint 
              from Malagon
        with his two sisters, 
      who were to become Carmelites. 
     He himself had received the habit 
        in Veas from Fray Jerome 
        and taken the name of 
              Gregory Nazianzen
      Soon after he was made master of novices
          in Seville, 
      where he was professed 
          27th March 1576. 
      One of the novices under him 
          was the famous 
      Father Nicholas a Jesu Maria (Doria)
      At the same time in Veas, 
       Julian of Avila received
          the Carmelite scapular 
       from Fray Jerome. 
      There Catherine of Jesus 
         — Catalina de Sandoval — 
      saw Fray Juan de la Miseria 
       on his way to Seville, 
       and recognised (him as ) the friar 
          she had seen in a vision 
       twenty years before 
       [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xxxvi. 6]. 
       See  Foundations: ch. xxii. 21. 
_____________________
 [12]
    26th May 1575. 
_____________________
 [13]
    Near the village of Espeluy, 
    where the Guadalquivir  river 
     joins the Herrumblar. 
___________________
 [14]
 According to the  
      Libro de las Recreaciones 
      of Mary of S. Joseph (Salazar)
 this incident happened on Whitmonday, 
   and this date appears more correct 
 than Tuesday 
       as S. Teresa says, 
 or Sunday 
        according to Julian d'Avila. 
______________________
 [15]
  No chapel now except baptistry. 
  There is now an altar in this church 
      dedicated to S. Teresa 
   with a painting representing the incident,

   but the chapel mentioned by the Saint 
       must have been pulled down. 
______________________
 [16]
 It was on this journey, at Ecija 
  that the Saint made the vow of obedience 
     to Fray Jerome of the Mother of God, 
   of which she speaks in Relation, vi. 3. 
   (Relations: Ch. 6: Paragraph #3 )
_____________
 [17]
  On Thursday, 26th May 1575, 
      within the octave of Pentecost. 
   See above,  Paragraph § 3. 
______________
 [18]
   See Paragraph § 2 above. 
__________________
 [19]
  Nee de cetero similia loca 
        erigantur 
   sine episcopi, 
   in cujus dioecesi erigenda sunt, 
   licentia prius obtenta 
    (Conc. Trident. Sess. xxv. c. iii). 
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .
 Blog  Added:
 "nor shall any such places 
     be henceforth erected, 
 without the permission of the bishop, 
 in whose diocese they are to be erected, 
    being first obtained."
      

  Counci of TrentSession 25
     On Regulars And Nuns 
     Seventh Decree
     Chapter 3
 All Monasteries save those herein excepted, 
 shall be able to possess real property: 
 the number of persons therein 
  to be determined by the amount 
  of Income, or of Alms. 
 No Monasteries, to be erected 
    without the Bishop's leave. 
 The holy Synod permits 
 that henceforth real property 
   may be possessed by all monasteries 
 and houses, both of men and women, 
   and of mendicants, 
 even by those who were forbidden 
 by their constitutions to possess it, 
 or who had not received permission 
   to that effect by apostolic privilege,
 -with the exception, however, of the houses 
   of the brethren of St. Francis 
          (called) Capuchins, 
   and those called Minor Observants: 
 and if any of the aforesaid places, 
  to which it has been granted 
     by apostolic authority to possess such property, 
  have been stripped thereof, 
 It ordains that the same shall be 
    wholly restored unto them. 
 But, in the aforesaid monasteries amid houses, 
    as well of men as of women, 
 whether they possess, or do not possess, 
        real property, 
 such a number of inmates only 
   shall be fixed upon and be for the future retained, 
 as can be conveniently supported, 
 either out of the proper revenues 
     of those monasteries, 
  or out of the customary alms; 
 nor shall any such places 
     be henceforth erected, 
 without the permission of the bishop, 
 in whose diocese they are to be erected, 
 being first obtained. 
________________
 [20] 
   29th May 1575. 
________________
 [21]
  The Saint speaks of this visit 
    in a letter to the general, 
   written from Seville, 18th June 1575. 
   The prior of the Carmelites
      of the Observance, 
    Fray Miguel de Ulloa, 
      was one of the visitors. 
    They asked by what authority 
     the monastery had been erected, 
     and on being shown the letter 
        of the general asked for a copy of it. 
     The Saint knew 
       that the copy might be made use of 
          against her, and refused to grant it. 
         (Note of Fray Antonio of S. Joseph.) 
_______________________
 [22]
  The archbishop wished the nuns 
      to come to Seville from the first, 
    but he did not wish them 
      to have a separate monastery 
    of their own order. 
    His purpose was to distribute them 
        among the several monasteries 
    within his jurisdiction, 
    in order that by their fervour 
        and good example 
    those monasteries might be reformed 
        and made better.
     [ Yepes, ii. ch. 28 ] 

            End of  Chapter 24 
                     of the 
          Book of the Foundations
             of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Easy to read format -Thanks
(not sure if my first comment got through)
Lilly

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