Saturday, August 13, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Chapter 17 - St. Teresa of Avila - Teresa of Jesus

       The Book of the Foundations
              of S. Teresa of Jesus 
 of the Order of our Lady of Carmel  
                 CHAPTER 17

        Chapter 17 Contents

  The Foundation Of The Monasteries 
       Of Friars And 
       Of  Nuns At  Pastrana
   In One And The Same Year 
    1579, I Mean 1569 
   1. The Saint's joy in Toledo. — 
   2. And pain at parting. — 
   3. Directed to go to Pastrana. — 
   4. Arrives in Madrid. — 
   5. Fray Juan de la Miseria — 
   6. Mariano of S. Benedict. — 
   7. His Vocation. — 
   8. The Saint persuades Mariano 
         to become a Carmelite. — 
   9. He consents. — 
 10. A site found 
         for the new monastery of friars. — 
 11. The two provincials consent — 
 12. The princess of Eboli troublesome. — 
 13. The friars established at Pastrana. — 
 14. The princess of Eboli 
          becomes a nun. — 
 15. The nuns depart from Pastrana. —

            CHAPTER 17
1. The Saint's joy in Toledo
In about a fortnight 
   after the foundation 
       of the house in Toledo
   - when I had 
       arranged the little church, 
       put up the gratings, 
       done what was very troublesome to do 
               — for, as I said, we remained 
                        about a year 
                    in that house — 
   - when I was worn out 
          looking after the workmen, 
          and all was at last finished, 
   it was the eve of Pentecost.                            [1]
That very morning, 
   as we were at meals in the refectory, 
I felt a great joy in seeing 
   there was nothing more to do, 
   that on this feast 
       I could for some time
           taste of the sweetness of our Lord; 
I could scarcely eat, 
   so great was the joy of my soul. 
I did not much deserve this consolation, 
  for they came to tell me 
while I was thus employed 
   that a servant of the princess of Eboli,    [2]
     wife of Ruy Gomez de Silva,                     [3]
   was waiting. 
I went out, and learnt 
    that she had sent for me: 
it had  been arranged between us      
    some time before 
that I was to found 
    a monastery in Pastrana. 
I did not think
  it was to be so soon. 

2. And pain at parting.   
It gave me some pain, 
  because there was great danger 
in leaving a monastery 
      so newly founded
   to which opposition had been made
I therefore determined at once 
  that I would not go, 
and said so. 
He replied 
  that this was inconvenient, 
for the princess 
   - was there already, 
      having gone thither
          for no other purpose; 
   - that it would be an affront to her. 
  I was not minded to go, 
and told him so; 
    he might go and take some food; 
    I would write to the princess, 
         and he might depart. 
He was a very honourable man, 
   and, though not at all pleased, 
yet when I told him my reason 
   he was satisfied. 
3. Directed to go to Pastrana.  
The nuns 
  who had just arrived, and 
  who were to live in the monastery, 
     did not see 
  how it was possible for me 
     to quit the house so soon. 
I went before the Most Holy Sacrament
   to beg of our Lord
 that I might write in such a way 
   as to give no offence, 
  for we were in a very difficult position, 
  because of the friars 
   who had then begun the reform, 
   and in every way 
    it would be well for us 
        to have the good graces of Ruy Gomez,   
    whose influence 
        over the king and 
        all people 
      was so great. 
However, I do not remember 
    whether I thought of this, 
but I know well 
    that I wished not to offend the princess. 
While I was in this perplexity 
   our Lord said to me 
     - that I was to go without fail, 
     - that I was going for something 
           more than for that foundation, 
   - that I was to take with me 
         the rule and constitutions.                 [4] 
When I heard this, 
    though I had great reasons 
          for not going, 
 I durst not act 
    but according to my custom 
          in like circumstances, 
    which is to be guided 
          by the advice of my confessor
    I then sent for him; 
    I did not tell him 
         what I had heard in prayer, 
    for I am always better satisfied so, 
    but I implored our Lord 
         to give my confessors light 
    according to the measure of that 
       which they naturally understand, 
    His Majesty puts it into their hearts  
      whenever He will have anything done
4. Arrives in Madrid. — 
This has often happened to me 
               — so did it now, 
 for  my confessor,                     
    having considered the whole matter, 
was of  the opinion 
    that I ought to go, 
    and thereupon 1 determined to go. 
I left Toledo 
    on the morrow after Pentecost.               [5]
Our road lay through Madrid, 
and we went to lodge, 
    my companions and I, 
in the monastery of the Franciscans, 
with a lady 
    who had founded it, and 
    who was living in it, 
        Dona Leonor de Mascarenas, 
        formerly governess of the king, 
        a very great servant of our Lord. 
I had been lodged there on other occasions
  when I had to travel that way, 
and that lady ever showed me 
   much kindness.                                             [6] 
5. Fray Juan de la Miseria — 
That lady told me 
   she was glad 
I had come at that time, 
   for there was a hermit there 
        who greatly desired to see me, 
   and that he and his companions, 
        she thought, 
   were living in a way 
        very like that prescribed by our rule. 
To me, 
   who had but two friars, 
came the thought 
   that it would be a great thing 
       if by any means it were so, 
and so I asked her to find an opportimity 
  for us to speak together. 
He lodged in a room 
  which the lady had given him, 
      with another brother, 
    a young man by name 
       Fray Juan de la Miseria,                      [7] 
       a great servant of God, 
       and most simple 
           in the ways of the world. 
Then, when we were talking together, 
   he told me that he wished to go to Rome.
 Before I go on further 
I should like to say 
  what I know of this father, 
     by name Mariano of S. Benedict.         [8] 
6. Mariano of S. Benedict. — 
He was an Italian by birth, 
  a man of very great abilities and skill, 
   and a doctor. 
When in the service of the queen of Poland,
    entrusted with the ministry 
       of her household, 
    having never any inclination to marry,

    but holding a commandery 
       in the order of S. John, 
    he was called by our Lord 
       to give up all he possessed, 
    that he might the better labour 
       for his own salvation. 
 He had  afterwards to undergo some trouble, 
   for the death of a certain person 
  was laid to his charge. 
Kept in prison for two years,
   he would not allow a lawyer 
       or any other to defend him, 
   but only God and His justice. 
There were witnesses 
   who said that he had asked them 
to commit the murder. 
As it happened to the old men 
  who accused S.  Susanna,                     [9] 
so it did to these, 
  for, each of them 
       being severally questioned 
  where he was at the time, 
      one said he was sitting on his bed, 
      another that he was at the window; 
   at last they confessed 
     that the accusation was a falsehood. 
He told me 
  - that it cost him a great sum 
        to set those witnesses at liberty 
     without being punished, and 
  - that the very man 
      who had caused him all that trouble 
     fell into his hands, 
  - that he had to proceed judicially
       against him,
     but that he had stretched his power
     to the utmost not to do him any harm. 
7. His Vocation. 
It must be for these 
    and his other virtues
        — he was a pure and chaste man,  
             hating the conversation of women — 
  that he merited light from our Lord 
     to see what the world is
  that he might withdraw from it
Accordingly he began to consider 
   which order he should enter, 
and, testing now one, now another, 
   he must have found something in all, 
         as he told me, 
   unsuited for himself. 
He heard that some hermits 
   were dwelling together near Seville, 
in a desert called Tardon, 
   having for their superior a most holy man,
whom they called Father Matthew.        [10] 
Each hermit had his own cell; 
  the divine office was not said, 
but they had an oratory 
   where they met together to hear mass. 
They had no revenues, 
   and neither would nor did receive alms, 
but maintained themselves 
   by the labour of their hands, and 
every one took his meals 
   by himself poorly enough. 
When I heard of it,
  I thought it was a picture 
of the holy fathers of our order. 
He had been living in this fashion 
   for eight years. 
8. The Saint persuades Mariano 
         to become a Carmelite.  
When the holy Council of Trent 
   had been held, 
when the decree came forth 
   by which all hermits were to be brought
       under the discipline of the regular orders, 
   Mariano wished to go to Rome,
       to beg that they might be left 
           as they were; 
   and this was his object 
      when I spoke to him. 
When he had recounted to me 
   his way of life 
I showed him the primitive rule 
   of the order, 
and told him 
    he might without all that trouble
         keep his observances, 
    for they were the same as ours, 
    especially that of living 
        by the work of his own hands, 
    which was that 
        which had the greatest attraction for him.
He had said to me 
   that the world was ruined by greed, 
   that this it was 
        that brought religion into contempt. 
As I was of the same opinion myself, 
   we agreed at once 
        on this, 
        and also upon everything else; 
so that when I showed him 
   he might serve God in this our habit
 he told me he would think of it 
   that very night.                                                     [11]
 I saw 
   that his mind was nearly made up, 
and understood the meaning of 
   what I had heard in prayer, 
that I "was going for something 
  more than for a monastery of nuns." [12]
It gave me the very greatest pleasure, 
  for I saw 
that our Lord would be greatly served 
  by his entering the order. 
9. He consents.  
His Majesty, 
      who willed it, 
  so moved his heart 
       during the night 
that he called upon me the next day, 
   having then fully made up his mind, 
   being also amazed 
      at the change 
   so suddenly wrought in himself, 
      especially by a woman; 
for even to this day 
  he sometimes tells me so, 
as if she had been the cause of it, 
  and not our Lord, 
      Who is able to change 
          the hearts of men. 
His judgments are deep ! 
for this man, 
    having lived so many years 
without knowing 
    what resolution to take 
concerning his state
         — he was then in no state at all, 
              being under no vows or obligation
              beyond that of a solitary life — 
    was now so quickly led of God, 
    Who showed him 
       how great a service he might
            render Him in this state, 
       that He wanted him 
       for the purpose of carrying on 
            what had been begun. 
He has been a great help, 
   and it has cost him much trouble, 
   and will cost him more 
      before everything is settled,              [13]
if we may judge 
    by the opposition made 
 to the primitive rule; 
for he is a man who, 
    because of his abilities, temper, 
         and excellent life, 
    has influence with many persons 
          who help and protect us. 
10. A site found 
       for the new monastery of friars.  
He then told me 
  - that in Pastrana 
         — the very place I was going to — 
     Ruy Gomez had given him 
        a good  hermitage,                             
        and a place for making there 
              a settlement for hermits, and
  - that he would give it to the order 
      and take the habit himself. 
I thanked him, 
   and praised our Lord greatly; 
for as yet, 
    of the two monasteries 
for the founding of which 
    two licences had been given me 
by the most reverend our father-general, 
     only one had been established. 
Thereupon I sent a messenger 
   to the two fathers already mentioned,
 the present and the last provincial, 
   earnestly begging them 
       to give me leave, 
  for the foundation could not be made 
     without their consent. 
I wrote also to the bishop of Avila, 
   Don Alvaro de Mendoza
who was our great friend, 
   asking him to obtain the licence from them. 
11. The two provincials consent   
It pleased God 
  that they should give their consent.

They must have thought 
   that the monastery would do them no harm
in a place so far out of the way. 
Mariano promised to go thither 
   when the permission should come; 
so I went away extremely glad.                [14] 
I found the princess 
   and the prince Ruy Gomez in Pastrana, 
by whom I was most kindly received. 
They gave us a lodging for ourselves alone, 
    wherein we remained 
longer than I expected. 
As the house was so small, 
  the princess had ordered 
        a great part of it 
      to be pulled down 
      and then to be rebuilt; 
      not the outer walls, however, 
      but a very large part ot it. 

12. The princess of Eboli troublesome.  
 I was there three months, 
  during which I had much to endure, 
because the princess insisted 
  on certain things unbecoming our order; [15] 
and so, rather than consent to them, 
   I made up my mind to go away 
without making the foundation; 
but the prince Ruy Gomez, 
  in his good nature, 
        which is very great, 
  listened to reason, 
  pacified his wife, 
  and I accepted some of her conditions; 
  for I  was more anxious 
    for the foundation of the monastery 
             of the friars 
    than for that of the nuns, 
  seeing how important that was, 
    as I saw afterwards. 
13. The friars established at Pastrana.   
At this time Mariano 
   and his companion arrived
         — the hermits spoken of before— 
   with the licence of the provincial. 
The prince and princess consented 
   to grant the hermitage 
         they had given him 
   to the barefooted friars, 
  while I sent for the Father 
        Fray Antonio of Jesus, 
   who  was the first, from Mancera, 
    where he was at that time, 
       that he might begin 
          the foundation of the monastery. 
I prepared their habits and mantles for them, 
and did all I could 
   to enable them to take the habit at once. 
I had sent at this time for more nuns 
             — for I had brought 
                  but two with me —                 [16]
     to the monastery in Medina del Campo. 
There was a father living there, 
     then in years 
             — not very old, 
                  however, still not young — 
    but he was a great preacher, 
       by name Fray Baltasar de Jesus,  [17]
    who, when he  heard 
    that we were founding the monastery, 
       came with the nuns, 
       intending to become 
            a barefooted friar himself, 
       as indeed he did when he came, 
     and for which I gave praise unto God   
       when he told me of it. 
 He gave the habit 
     to Father Mariano and his companion     
   but as lay brothers; 
   for Mariano wished 
       not to be a priest, 
       but to be less than all the rest, 
    nor could I prevail upon him 
       to do otherwise. 
At a later time he was ordained priest 
   by commandment of the most reverend 
 the father-general.                               [18]
14. The princess of Eboli becomes a nun.
The two monasteries,                           [19]
    then, being founded, and 
the Father Fray Antonio of Jesus 
    having arrived, 
novices began to come in
             — what they were will be known by 
                  what I shall say of some of them
                      further on — 
and so earnestly to serve our Lord, 
          as any one more able to speak 
                than I am
                — for I must be short 
                     even in what regards the nuns —
           will tell, 
             if it should so please our Lord. 
As to the latter, 
   their monastery there was held 
in great esteem 
        by the prince, 
        and the princess, 
   who was very careful 
         to comfort and treat them well 
   down to the death of the prince Ruy Gomez, 
   when the devil, 
         or perhaps
    because our Lord permitted it 
           — His Majesty knoweth why — 
      sent the princess here as a nun, 
    in the tumult of her grief 
      for her husband's death.                      [20] 
    In the distress she was in, 
       the observance of enclosure, 
     to which she had never been accustomed,
        could not be very pleasant for her; 
  and the prioress, 
     because of the holy council,                [21] 
   could not give her 
      all the liberty she desired. 
15. The nuns depart from Pastrana. 
She (The princess) became displeased 
    with her (the prioress) and
    with all the nuns, 
so that,
     even after she laid aside the habit, and 
     while living in her own house,
           they were still an offence to her. 
The poor nuns were living 
    in such disquiet 
 that I  strove with all my might, 
    imploring the superiors
         to remove them, 
    that they might come to Segovia, 
         where I was then 
              founding a monastery, 
  as I shall mention further on,                 [22]

Thither they came, 
   leaving behind all 
       that the princess had given them, 
    but bringing with them certain nuns 
       whom the princess had ordered them 
    to admit without any dowry. 
The beds and trifling things 
   which the sisters, themselves, 
       had taken with them 
    they brought away, 
  leaving the inhabitants there 
       exceedingly sorry.                              [23] 
I had the greatest joy in the world 
  when I saw them in peace, 
for I knew very well 
   that they were blameless 
as to the offence which the princess took
       — far from it, 
            for they treated her, 
              during the time she wore the habit,
            with as much respect 
               as they did 
            before she had put it on. 
The cause of it all was 
   that which I mentioned just now, 
and the distress the princess was in, 
   but a servant 
      whom she had brought with her 
   was,    I believe, to blame for it all. 
In a word, our Lord, 
     Who permitted this, 
   must have seen 
     that the monastery was 
           not rightly placed there;
His judgments are 
    high, and
    surpass the understanding of us all. 
I could not have been 
    so bold as to do 
what I did 
    relying on my own understanding, 
    but I was guided by the advice 
        of saintly and learned men. 

                      Foot Notes:
   Whitsunday in 1569 fell on 29th May. 
  Ruy Gomez de Silva
       prince of Eboli, 
       first duke of Pastrana, 
       treasurer of Spain and the Indies. 
  The princess,
     Dona Ana de Mendoza y la Cerda, 
         daughter of 
           Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 
           Count of  Melito, 
     was born 29th June 1540, 
      and became celebrated for her beauty. 
  She was betrothed to the prince 
     who was considerably older, 
  at the age of 12. 
  She had ten children 
    of whom three died in infancy. 
  She had the misfortune
     of losing her right eye. 
  The prince died in Madrid 
      29th July 1573.
  Dona Catalina de Cardona 
    in her desert 
   saw him in a vision at the moment, 
   when he told her 
     that for the great alms 
    he had given through her 
      he was saved and in purgatory, 
    but in torments 
     that none would believe. 
    She was to get the prayers 
        of the Carmelite friars 
     of our Lady of Succour, 
     and have the masses said at once 
     which his wife, the princess, was to ask. 
    Dona Catalina, pitying her friend, 
      disciplined herself at once to blood, 
     and the next day 
     the vicar of the monastery 
        entering her cell 
     saw the state it was in,  
     and rebuked her 
        for her excessive penance. 
     She told him the truth, 
     and the vicar marked 
         the day and the hour 
      to test it.
     On the third day 
        came a messenger from the princess
      announcing the death, and 
      bringing alms to the monastery 
          of seventy ducats, 
      beside the retribution 
          for two hundred masses. 
      Within a few days 
         Dona Catalina had another vision 
             of the prince, 
         who thanked her for her service, 
          and told her of the great relief 
            it had brought to him 
                (Reforma, bk. iv. ch. xviii. 5). 
   See Foundations: Ch. 17: #8.   (above)
 On Monday, 30th May, 
    in a carriage 
   which the princess of Eboli 
         had sent for her. 
              Isabel of S. Dominic 
        was left prioress 
                of S. Joseph's in Toledo, 
    and the Saint took with her 
             Isabel of S. Paul, and 
            Dona Antonia del Aguila
     who had come from her old monastery 
          of the Incarnation, Avila 
     [ Rcforma, bk. 11. ch. xxvii. 2]
   See Foundation: Ch. 3: Foot note  #23. 
  Juan de la Miseria
    in the world,  Giovanni de Narduch, 
  was born in the kingdom of Naples: 
   in his youth 
     he had been with Ambrogio Mariano
   after some years of separation 
     they met again in the desert 
          of Tardon, near Cordova, 
   where they renewed their friendship. 
   They entered the order 
        of Mount Carmel together, 
    Juan de la Miseria as a lay brother 
     [ Reforma, bk. ii. ch. xxvii. 8]
   Fray Jerome Gratian 
       of  the Mother of God, 
   in the third part of his Declamacion
       says that he ordered Fray Juan, 
   when painting the cloisters of the monastery
       of the nuns in Seville, 
     to paint a likeness of S. Teresa. 
   Being then the superior of the Saint, 
      he made her, 
   for her greater mortification, 
      sit for her portrait. 
 Juan was a poor painter, 
   but in no other way 
 could a portrait of the Saint be had, 
  for neither she nor I, says Fray Jerome, 
     would have allowed any other 
   to make a likeness. 
 Fuente quotes this passage, 
  and adds a note to the eftect 
 that the portrait was ill done; 
 and that the Saint, 
  looking at it when finished, 
 said mirthfully, 
   'Fray Juan,  God forgive thee ! 
    what I have had to suffer 
         at thy hands 
    and after all to paint me 
         blear-eyed and ugly.' 
 This painting is still 
   at the convent of Seville, 
 but has been partly repainted, 
   a later artist having added 
     - the arms and hands of the Saint 
        which Fray Juan had forgotten, 
          and also
    - the dove, 
    - scroll and rays,  as well as,
    - the first and the third parts 
         of  the legend. 
        [ See Oeuvres, iv. 412.  ]

  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 Blog Note:
    Picture from 
    "The Life of Teresa of Jesus"
   Editor: Lewis

       . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 

  In the troubles of the order 
   when the Fathers 
        of the Mitigated Observance 
         for a time 
   brought the Reform 
        within their jurisdiction, 
  Juan had to suffer, 
      and in Rome consulted S. Philip, 
  who advised him to suffer and obey. 
   (Note of Fray Antonio de San Joseph, 
     on Letter of 19th Aug. 1578.) 
   Juan de la Miseria 
       died in Madrid in the year 1616, 
   in great reputation for sanctity, 
       being more than a hundred years old.
              [Reforma, bk. 11. ch. xxxvii. 16). 
 [8]   ( Mariano of S. Benedict )
  On the margin of the MS, 
     is written by Father Gratian: 
    "Mariano de Acaro." 
  Ambrogio Mariano Azaro 
      was born in Bitonto, 
   in the kingdom of Naples, 
      of noble parents. 
   One of his companions at school, 
      where he was greatly distinguished, 
    was Hugo Buoncompagno
        afterwards Pope Gregory XIII
    who always retained his affection for him.

  Mariano became a doctor 
    in canon and civil law, 
  was sent to the council of Trent, 
    where his ability and wisdom 
   led to his employment 
     in many difficult affairs 
    both in Germany and the Low Countries. 
    Later on he entered 
       the order of S. John of Jerusalem. 
    He came to Madrid, 
       having under his care the prince 
            of Salmona, a boy of nine, 
    and there his eyes were opened 
       to see the vanities of the world
     In Cordova, 
       where he was on business of state, 
     he made the spiritual exercises 
        under the direction of the Jesuits, 
      and was inclined to join the society, 
      but could not make up his mind 
         to do so, 
      because the fathers never met in choir,
         and mixed much in the world. 
      One day, from the window of his cell,  
         which opened into the church 
             — it was during his retreat —
      he saw the hermit Matthew enter, 
        by whose venerable aspect 
             he was attracted, 
             and finally led 
                into the desert of Tardon, 
                in the year 1562, 
        where he lived under obedience 
             to that simple man, 
         being himself 
             not only a brave soldier, 
             but a learned doctor, and, 
         the more to humble himself, 
          gained his bread by spinning. 
      He was professed in Pastrana in 1570, 
       and died in Madrid in 1594, 
       helped in his last hour 
          by the presence of the martyrs 
               SS. Cosmas and Damian,
          to whom he had been very devout 
               during his life 
            [ Reforma, bk. 11. 
              ch. xxvii. and xxviii. 5 ]
   Daniel, ch. xiii. 
  The venerable Father Mateo de la Fuente,    
     restorer of the order of  S.Basil in Spain,
   born about the year 1524, 
     in Almanuete, near Toledo. 
   He studied in Salamanca, 
      began his eremitical life 
        in the neighbourhood of  Cordova, 
    and withdrew into the recesses 
       of the Sierra Morena 
    because of the concourse of the people. 
    Blessed Juan de Avila, his director, 
       commanded him to take some 
            to live with him, 
    and thus he peopled a desert 
       where wild artichokes grew 
          {Cardos syhestris), 
    and gave it the name of the Cardon, 
    which was afterwards changed 
        into the Tardon
    These hermits tilled the ground, 
        for their maxim was that 
     he who does not work shall not eat. 
    They adopted the rule of S. Basil 
       when S. Pius V ordered the hermits 
     to observe a rule already approved 
       [ De la Fuente). 
     See the Bull, Lubricum vitae, 
        17th Nov. 1568. 
     S. Teresa says the hermitage 
     and much of Tardon was near Seville, 
     but in a letter addressed to
         Dona Catalina de Cardona, 
        dated  May 1571
            [Blog note: text is obscure
                 May 11th ?  1571 ] 
     Father Mariano 
       who must have known best, 
     says distinctly it was near Cordova. 
 This letter which is in edited 
   contains the following passage: 
     'At present the Pope 
         has given us a rule 
     and we have established 
         a house in this place,
      near Pastrana, 
      close to the Prince Ruy Gomez. 
   The Lord be praised, 
      for in two years 
    we have erected seven monasteries 
      of our Discalced Carmelite nuns 
    and two of Discalced Carmelite friars 
      like those of our Capuchins in Italy, 
    yet in even greater poverty. 
    When it shall have pleased you 
        to give me a full account 
             of your doings 
     (for which I ask as for an alms) 
       I shall write more at length. 
       Our Lord be in your soul. 
       Your servant in the Lord,
            Doctor Mariano Azaro, 
            Discalced Carmelite Friar.' 
   S. Teresa gave a copy of the rule 
       to Mariano, 
   who took it with him 
       to his lodging 
   where he read it aloud, 
    and explained it to Juan de la Miseria
        his companion. 
    Before he had gone through it 
        he cried out, 
       'Brother John, 
         we have found 
              what we are seeking for; 
         that is the rule we should keep.' 
    The next morning he told Dona Leonor 
      what had been the fruit 
          of the night's meditation, 
      and she carried the good news at once 
          to the Saint 
           [ Reforma, bk. 11. ch. xxvii, 3, 4 ].
  [12]  See § 3, above. 
   The Saint wrote this in 1573 or 1574, 
    and before the persecution began. 
  The Saint, 
      having asked Mariano 
           to remain in Madrid 
      till he received the expected permission 
           from the provincial, 
    set out for Pastrana 
      with the two nuns 
           who had come with her from Toledo 
                 (see foot note #5), (above)
      and a postulant recommended to her 
            by her great friend 
                 Dona Antonia de Brances
        who received in religion the name of 
          Beatriz of the Most Holy Sacrament 
             [ Reforma, bk. 11. ch. xxvii. 5]. 
 The princess had brought
     with her from Madrid 
   an Augustinian nun 
     belonging to a house 
   of her order in Segovia, 
      Dona Catalina Machuca
   who was to lay aside her own habit, 
    and enter the new foundation 
       as a Carmelite in Pastrana. 
   The im petuous princess insisted 
        on its being done at once, 
    and would not listen 
         to the objections of the Saint. 
    To soothe the irritation 
         caused by the refusal, 
     the Saint laid the matter 
          before Fray Dominic Banez, 
     who approved the act of  S. Teresa. 
    The princess at last gave way, 
      and the new house was spared 
    the difficulty of training a nun 
      who had 
          either learned the spirit 
                 of another order 
          or was incapable of such training. 
     The princess wished the monastery 
          to be unendowed, 
      but the Saint would not hear of it, 
      for she knew  
         that the place was poor, 
         that the people, 
               supposing that a great personage
                  like the princess of Eboli 
              had taken care 
                  of the temporal necessities 
              of the house she had founded, 
         would therefore suffer the nuns 
               to perish of want. 
 The generosity of the princess 
    was not to be relied on. 
 At this time the princess of Eboli 
   found out 
     that the Saint had written her Life, 
        and insisted on reading it. 
    The Saint for a long time 
        withheld it, 
     but at last yielded 
         to the importunities of Ruy Gomez, 
     who came to his wife's aid. 
    The princess ridiculed the book; 
        left it for her servants to read; 
    and these, 
        following  her example, 
          divulged its contents, and 
          raised an outcry against the Saint. 
  It was this conduct of the princess 
   that led to the Inquisition
       to demand the book 
    [ Reforms, bk. 11. ch. xxviii. 5-7]. 
     See also Relation, vii. # 17. 
 The Saint had only two nuns 
     with her at this time 
   (see   foot note #5), 
   and so she sent to Medina for 
         Isabel of S. Jerome and 
         Anne of  Jesus
      who had both taken the habit there. 
    In addition to these,
       there came another nun, 
         Jeronyma of S. Augustine (Gutierrez), 
      from her old monastery 
         of the Incarnation, Avila 
       [ Ribera, bk. 11. ch. xv ]. 
 [17]  (Fray Baltasar de Jesus)
  Baltazar  Nieto, 
    born at Zafra, in Estremadura,
    belonged originally to 
         the Order of Minims,
    but joined the Carmelites about 1563, 
    having obtained a Papal brief 
     which enabled him to make
       his solemn profession 
     without having completed 
       a year's novitiate. 
     He and another friar having expressed 
        a desire to go to the West Indies, 
     Rubeo, who was then Vicar.Gencral,
       charged the provincial to assign him 
         in the meantime conventuality 
      in one of the monasteries of Andalucia
      and to enable him to proceed 
          to the new world 
       as soon as an opportunity
          should be found. 
     For some reason or other 
       this project could not be realised, 
      but Nieto was successively elected prior 
         in several convents. 
     In August 1565, 
       his brother Melchior Nieto, 
         also Carmelite, 
     had an unseemly scene with a fellow friar 
      at the convent of Ecija, 
    for which he was severely punished. 
     Baltasar helped him to escape 
       from the conventual prison, 
     which fact rendered him liable 
       to undergo the punishment 
           due to Melchior. 
     But Rubeo, who was now General, 
        dealt mercifully with him; 
     he commuted the imprisonment 
       into one year's exile from the province, 
     with loss of privileges, place and voice 
        in chapter, 
      but having regard to Baltasar's ill-hcalth,
         he mitigated this sentence, 
      sending him to the convent of Utrera, 
         with permission to preach, 
             to hear confessions, 
             to go about freely 
          within the precincts of the convent, 
        and once a month 
             to go into the town for a walk 
                 or on business. 
      After Kaster of the following  year (1567)
         he was to proceed to Castille,
       there to complete the term of his exile.
      But even this punishment 
         was further relaxed 
       in as much as he was allowed 
          to go to Jaen or Gibralcon. 
      When Easter came 
         he went to Valderas in Castille 
       where he was received, 
         not as a prisoner, 
         but as an honoured guest, 
        his privileges and rank being restored  
          and many favours shown him. 
    He went to Madrid to meet the General 
      who in the meantime 
    had received fresh complaints against him 
       which he was unable to disprove. 
     Rubeo's patience, being now exhausted,
       he commanded the friar 
           to seek within a given time 
        admission into some other Order 
                of equal or greater austerity, 
        failing which he was to be 
                relegated for life 
                   to some distant convent,
                subjected to rigorous penance. 
   Under these circumstances 
       it is not surprising 
     that he eagerly seized the opportunity 
       of joining the Discalced Carmelites,
    for by so doing 
       he completely wiped out 
     all previous delinquencies and penalties.
   He arrived at Pastrana, 
      gave the habit to the two hermits 
    and afterwards took it himself, 
      choosing for his name 
           Baltasar of Jesus
    There not being enough religious 
       in that convent 
     to justify its erection as a priory 
            though nominally a novice, 
            was made vicar; 
     after his profession 
         in the following year 
     he was entrusted by the Visitor apostolic
           (Pedro Fernandez) 
     with the post of Vicar-provincial 
       of the Discalced Carmelites of Castille. 
  In April 1573 
    the powers of Delegate visitor-apostolic
     of the Carmelites of Andalucia 
      were granted him, 
   but for the reasons explained 
     in the Intoduction 
    he subdelegated Father Jerome Gratian 
     in August of the same year. 
    Later on, however,
      he turned against this father, 
    going even so far 
      as to bring false evidence against him. 
   He spent the last years of his life 
      at Lisbon and died there in 1589. 
   Great talents
        (he was a celebrated preacher) 
    and deep piety had been marred 
      by impetuosity and inconsistency, 
    which spoiled what might have been 
       a most brilliant career. 
   When Rubeo learned 
      that Nieto had joined 
        the Discalced Carmelites at Pastrana,
      he addressed letters patent to 
           'the Contemplative Carmelites 
             of the province of Castille,' 
        dated Rome, 8th Aug. 1570,  
     the knowledge of which is 
         of the greatest importance 
       for the understanding 
         of the subsequent troubles. 
   He prohibits the 'Discalsati' 
      to receive any 
    of  the Calced Carmelites 
        of Spain or Portugal 
    without a written permission from himself;
     and he formally forbids them 
       to receive those 
     of the province of Andalucia 
     whom he has had occasion to punish, 
         Master Ambrose de Castro, 
            formerly prior of Valladolid, 
         Gaspar Nieto, 
          Melchior Nieto, 
          Juan de Mora and their accomplices, 
       'lest the whole fold 
               of the Contemplative
          become corrupted by them, 
        for they have always 
               caused dissensions and quarrels.' 
       Should any Portuguese friars 
            desire to be received 
                 and to remain permanently 
         with the Discalced  friars
        no obstacle should be put into their way
         provided they 
               are not fugitives and 
               have the written permission 
                    of their provincial; 
        and likewise those 
                    of the province of Castille 
            may be received 
              with the consent of the provincial, 
        but the latter must exercise discretion
           in granting it, 
        so as not to leave the existing convents 
          without the necessary number 
              of priests and brothers 
          for the fulfilment of the monastic 
              and ecclesiastical obligations. 
         Any Carmelite who, 
                after having been received
                     by the Discalced fathers, 
             leaves them, 
       shall be perpetually banished 
           from all and any 
        of the Spanish provinces. 
   The Discalced Carmelites 
      are to be subject to 
         the government and 
         visitation of the provincial, 
      and, in case of necessity,
      may be punished by him, 
    but they may not be 
         taken  from their own convents and 
         sent to those of the Calced fathers, 
    no more than any of the latter 
        may be sent to a convent 
                of the former 
        against their will. 
   The priors and socii 
      of the Discalced fathers 
    are to have place and voice 
        both active and passive 
     in the provincial chapters, 
  and to be in every respect 
     on the same footing 
   as the priors and socii 
      of the other convents. 
   The Discalced fathers may found 
      no other houses 
    besides those they already possess, 
      nor may there be 
          more than twenty religious 
      in any of their convents. 
Fray Mariano was ordained priest in Lent, 
 and was the first master of novices 
        in Seville 
  [ Reforma, bk iii. ch. xxiv. i ]   
  The monastery of the friars 
      was founded 9th June 1569
   on which day the friars
  took civil possession of the place; 
   but as Fray Antonio of  Jesus 
     had not then arrived, 
  for whom the Saint intended 
    the honour of  making the foundation, 
  the Most Holy Sacrament 
     was not reserved on that day, 
      but on the 13th, 
    which is counted as 
        the true date of the foundation 
     [  Reforma, bk. n. ch. xxx. 1 ].
 The Saint went 
      from Pastrana to Toledo, 
  and sent back from that house, 
     in the carriage 
     in which she had travelled herself, 
  the Sister Isabel of S. Dominic
     who had made her profession in Avila,
       to be the prioress of Pastrana 
         [ Ribera, bk. n. ch. xv). 
   The prioress was charged 
       by the Saint 
      to have a strict account 
         of every thing, small and great, 
     given them 
         by the prince and princess of Eboli, 
     kept in writing, 
         with  the day of the month, 
      and signed by the prioress herself 
           [ Reforma, bk. II. ch. xxviii. l0]. 
    The sub-prioress of Pastrana was the
      Mother Isabel of S. Paul
    Anne of the Angels,
        prioress of Malagon, 
    was sent to Toledo 
       to fill the place of Isabel of S. Dominic,
     and her own place was filled by 
         Mary of the Most Holy Sacrament .
           [ Ribera, bk. ii. ch. xv]. 
  Ruy Gomez died 
      in Madrid, 29 July, 1573, 
    attended in his last illness 
       by Father Mariano 
       and Fray Baltasar of Jesus. 
  The princess, 
      in her unreasonable sorrow, 
   insisted on becoming 
      a Carmelite nun at once, 
   and Mariano weakly yielded 
      to her fury
      [ Reforma, bk. in. ch. xxi. l]. 
  She leaves Madrid 
     before her husband is buried, 
   and hastens to Pastrana 
     to enter the monastery. 
   Fray Baltasar of Jesus 
      hurries before her, 
   and at two o'clock in the morning 
      disturbs the nuns with the news 
   that the princess was coming. 
   When the prioress,
        Isabel of S. Dominic, 
     had heard the story, 
    she replied, 
       'The princess a nun ? 
        the monastery is lost.' 
  The prioress called up the nuns, 
     and with them 
    made what preparations they could 
      for the reception of their benefactress. 
  About eight o'clock in the morning 
    the princess arrived with her mother. 
   The nuns gave her another 
       and a cleaner habit, 
    and she insisted on their admitting 
       at the same time
    two persons as novices 
       she had brought with her. 
    The prioress objected, 
      for such a thing was not to be done 
    without the sanction of the superior, 
       whereupon the new nun cried out, 
     'What have the friars to do 
         with my monastery ?' 
    The novices were received 
       after consulting the prior, 
     but the demands of the princess grew, 
     and at last she insisted 
        on admitting her visitors 
                within the cloister, 
        on having two maids 
                to wait upon her. 
      The nuns offered to be her servants,
         but she must have her own way. 
      The prioress had assigned her 
         as foundress 
         a seat next herself in the refectory, 
       and the princess 
           (who took the name 
               Anne of the Mother of God), 
      notwithstanding prayers and entreaties, 
           took the lowest place. 
     At last her self-will exhausted
            the patience of the prioress, 
     who told her  
          that if she did not suffer them 
              to keep the rule 
          Mother Teresa would remove them 
              from Pastrana. 
    Thereupon she left the house, 
         and retired into one 
             of the hermitages in the garden, 
         had a door made in the wall, 
         and admitted all her friends 
            to see her in a nun's dress, 
         doing her own will. 
     At last she left the monastery, 
        but she also left it to struggle 
             with poverty, 
        for the alms promised 
              by her husband and herself 
        were withheld 
          (ib. bk. iii. ch. xxviii. 2 — 5). 
Council Trent , sess. xxv. cap. 5. 
 See Foundations: Ch. xxi. 
 The Saint, 
    when she found 
   that it was no longer possible 
     to preserve the house of Pastrana, 
 consulted the provincial, 
    Fray Angel de Salazar, 
    Fray Pedro Fernandez, 
    Fray Dominic Banes, and 
    Fray Hernando del Castillo. 
  They all agreed 
       in the removal of the nuns 
   if no change could be wrought 
       in the temper of the princess. 
   Fray Hernando was sent to see her 
           — he had been a friend 
                of her husband — 
    but she refused to see him, 
       feigning illness. 
  The prioress, 
      being told to prepare everything
         for the departure of the nuns, 
      sent for the corregidor, 
          who came with a notary, 
          who recorded the transaction. 
   The prioress, 
       provided with her accounts, 
       delivered up everything 
           received from the princess 
        into the charge of the corregidor, 
           who accepted the trust, and 
           gave her a formal receipt
                  for the same. 
    The princess now became uneasy 
        and wished the nuns to stay, 
     but the last mass had been said, 
     and the Most Holy Sacrament consumed,
       so the prioress answered 
          it was too  late. 
   The princess then begged them 
      to take with them the two nuns 
    who had been in her service; 
    they said they would readily take 
      one of  them, Anne of the Incarnation
   as for the other, 
      the princess might provide for her 
          as she pleased. 
    They left Pastrana at midnight, 
       according to Yepes, 
     and, under the care of Julian of Avila,
       Antonio Gaytan, 
      and Fray Gabriel of the Assumption, 
         arrived in Segovia 
      in the holy week of  1574. 
     They were once 
          in danger of death 
          on the road, 
     and the Saint, 
          at the moment in Segovia, 
      said to her nuns:
          'Let us pray for those
             who are coming from Pastrana. 
       The bishop of Segorbe 
          followed them to Segovia 
       with a message from the princess 
          asking the Saint 
             to take also the sister 
          whom they had left behind; 
       she declined, 
       because the monastery was already full. 
      He then threatened them 
        with an action at law 
       for the recovery 
       of what the princess 
         had given them in Pastrana, 
       whereupon the receipt of the corregidor 
         was produced 
        and the bishop said no more
             [ Reforma, bk. iii. ch. xxviii. 7, 8].
       The chronicler says 
          the Saint received 
               but one of the nuns
          thrust on the monastery 
               by the princess; 
        perhaps the Saint may 
               have relented later, 
                and accepted her 
         after she had been left behind 
               at Pastrana, 
        and, to hide her generosity, 
          spoke of her as having arrived 
             with her sisters. 
       Anne of  the Incarnation 
           made her profession in Segovia 
       on the feast of SS. Simon and Jude, 1574,
         and was in the monastery of Caravaca 
            in 1581 
             [ De la Fuente, vi. 79 ].
             ( Blog Note:
                 Another source indicates 
                 De La Fuente ii, 367 )

          End of Chapter 17
                    of the 
          Book of the Foundations
             of S. Teresa of Jesus 
  of the Order of our Lady of Carmel   
Blog note:
  From  Foot Note # 1
   "The princess (of Eboli) 
     Dona Ana de Mendoza y la Cerda"
   From  Foot Note # 20
    "the princess (of Eboli)
           (who took the name 
            Anne of the Mother of God)"

              . . . . . . . . . . . .
 She is not to be confused with:
  Anne of the Mother of God 
   of the Convent in Toledo
  who was mentioned in Chapter 16:
 Ana de la Palma 
       was a wealthy widow, 
        and had been so for twenty years, 
       living a most holy life in her own house. 
   She was forty years old 
       when she entered the order, 
    and made her profession in Toledo, 
       15th  November  1570, 
 [ Foundations: Ch. 16: Foot note #1]

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