Tuesday, June 7, 2011

The Book of the Foundations - Book Versions

 The Book Of the Foundations

[ This is an excerpt from the Introduction
     which describes the different versions 
  of the Book of the Foundation
     and the other writings 
  that were often included with this book:
     The foundation of the convent of Granada 
             by Ven. Anne of Jesus, 
     The Visitation of the Nunneries
     The Constitution
     The Carmelite Rule
     The Maxims of St. Teresa ]
"The Book of the Foundations 
   was written at different times. 
It was begun in Salamanca, 24th Aug. 1573, 
  by the order of father Ripalda, S.J., 
her confessor at the time. 
She seems to have written twenty chapters
 without much interruption. 
Then, when she was, as it were,
   imprisoned in Toledo 
by order of the general, 
after the foundation of Seville was made, 
  she was commanded by
Fray Jerome of the Mother of God 
   to continue her writing. 
She obeyed, 
    beginning with ch. xxi.,  and
    brought her work 
        down to the end of ch. xxvii., 
    which she finished on the vigil 
    of S. Eugenius, 14th Nov. 1576.
The rest of the book was probably written 
  as each foundation was made.
Fray Luis de Leon 
  at the request of Ven. Anne of Jesus
and the Superiors of the Discalced Carmelites 
  published the writings of the Saint
in the year 1588, in Salamanca,
but without the Book of the Foundations
The Saint had been dead only six years, 
 it is probable enough 
that some hesitation might be felt 
   about printing a book
 in which people then living 
   were spoken of;
but in 1610 
the former, then Prioress at Brussels
       undertook, with the assistance 
  of Father Jerome Gratian
then also in Flanders, 
the publication of this important work, 
  which appeared in that year 
       at Roger Velpius, 
       and Hubert Antoine's at Brussels. 
In addition to the text of the Saint
     - with which, however Father Gratian 
        had taken undue liberties -
    it contains  
     "The Relation of the Foundation
       of the Convent of Granada" 
     by Ven. Anne of Jesus, 
       and some other documents. 
But there was also a notable omission. 
    Dona Casilda de Padilla 
       whose history Saint Teresa had told 
           so strikingly in Chapters X and XI
       was then still living, 
           though no longer 
           among the Teresian nuns; 
     she had joined the Poor Clares 
       and was abbess at Burgos; 
      her sister, too, 
         Dona Luisa de Padilla, 
      having obtained a dispensation 
        enabling her 
           - to recover her property, and 
           - to contract marriage, 
       was still alive. 
     Under these circumstances 
     it was thought wise 
        to omit all reference to them
     with the result that this 
         as well as other Spanish editions 
              and many translations 
          (for instance, 
            the English by Canon Dalton)  
     appeared in a mutilated form.
Other editions followed at Saragossa in 1623, 
  by the Calced Carmelites, 
     at Antwerp in 1630, etc.
  Mr Lewis followed that 
     of  Vicente de la Fuente (i860). 
But all doubts as to the correct text 
   have been finally set at rest
by the publication, in 1880, 
  of the photo-lithographic edition 
  of the original manuscript 
which is preserved at the Escorial 
   together with those of 
      the Life, 
      the first version of the Way of Perfection
      the Visitation of 'Nunneries.
In the present edition the text 
   published by Mr Lewis in 1871 
has been confronted with the original, 
  and, where necessary, amended. 
In England the Book of Foundations
   was not known till 1669. 
At that time there existed already 
   two translations of the Life
and a third one was in preparation. 
The translators, 
    Abraham Woodhead
        and his anonymous collaborator 
    together with 
        Father Bede of S. Simon Stock
          (Walter Joseph Travers
        decided to begin their edition 
           with the Book of Foundations 
        which appeared under the title,
   'The second Part of the Life 
       of the Holy Mother
    St Teresa of Jesus; 
       or, the History of her Foundations. 
    Written by Her Self. 
    Whereunto are annexed 
       Her Death; Burial; and 
      the Miraculous Incorruption, 
         and Fragrancy 
       of Her Body. 
     Together with Her Treatise 
      Of the Manner of Visiting the
      Monasteries of Discalced Nuns. 
     Printed in the Year MDCLXIX.
Although translated from the Spanish 
it follows the Italian editions
   in that it begins 
     by the chapters of the Life
   relating to the foundation 
      of the convent of S. Joseph of Avila, 
   in which are incorporated the Rule 
      and Constitutions of the nuns, 
   and an account of the Deserts 
      or Hermitages of the friars 
   taken from Don Diego de Yepes,
      Bishop of Tarassona. 
The numbering of the chapters
   does not agree 
         with the original 
          with the present edition, 
       five chapters being taken over 
             from the Life 
       two chapters bear the same number. 
  But otherwise the edition is complete,  
   including the story of Dona Casilda,
    and the foundation of Granada.
In 1853, another translation was published 
   by the Very Reverend John Dalton
    Canon of Northampton, 
   the title of which is as follows :
        'Book of the Foundations. 
         Written by S. Teresa.
         Translated from the Spanish 
         by Rev. John Dalton.
         Embellished with a portrait of the Saint' 
         London, 1853. 
         Reprinted in 1893.
The latest translation is due 
   to the Rev. Mother
Superior of the Community 
   of the Holy Family
and is dedicated to Bishop Gore :
      'Saint Teresa. 
       The History ot her Foundations.
       Translated from the Spanish
            by Sister Agnes Mason, C.H.F. 
        with a Preface 
       by the Rt. Hon. Sir E. M. Satow, 
        Cambridge, at the University Press,1909.
This elegant and faithful translation 
is adorned with an excellent map 
   and beautiful illustrations 
which, however,
   are not always to the point. 
It does not contain the Foundation 
    of Granada.
A most interesting and valuable work 
  appeared at Ghent in 1894, 
under the title 
     L'Espagne Theresienne ou pekrinage 
      aun Flam and a toiites les fondatlons 
       de Sainte Therhe  
        (also in Spanish, 1898). 
The author, Mr Hye Hoys, a painter,
  while travelling in Spain in 1866, 
 visited all the foundations 
   made by S. Teresa, 
 collecting sketches
    - not only of the convents themselves 
    - but also of many objects used by her 
    and religiously preserved as relics. 
The work contains thirty engraved plates 
  with explanatory notes. 
The present writer who has had the privilege 
 of seeing most of these convents 
and visiting the scenes of S, Teresa's labours 
  can bear testimony to the accuracy 
of  the designs.
The latest edition of the Works of S. Teresa 
    in French entitled 
   Oeuvres completes 
      de Sainte Terese de Jesus
           by the Carmelite nuns 
           of the Premier Monastere de Paris
            (now at Anderlecht near Brussels),
            6 vols., Paris, 1907-1910, 
            of which vols. 3 and 4 
              are devoted to 
            the Book of Foundations
   is particularly valuable on account 
      of the abundance of critical 
      and biographical notes, 
      and a rich collection of documents,
   many of which were not previously known.
  While freely and gratefully utilising these 
      we have felt it 
    difficult  to resist the temptation of 
     incorporating  in this volume 
    - collateral accounts of the labours 
              of the Saint,
    - documents illustrative 
            of her trials and troubles.
On the other hand we have drawn 
  on a collection of documents 
not hitherto published, 
  made by ourself 
during a prolonged journey
   through Italy and Spain. 
It will, therefore, be noticed 
 that this second edition 
of Mr Lewis' splendid translation
   is more accurate and more complete
 than the first which appeared in 1871.
         The Carmelite Rule
The Carmelite Rule is translated 
   and placed in this volume 
as it is in the edition of Don Vicente
  for the purpose of throwing light 
on the Constitutions of the Saint. 
The rule was drawn up in the beginning 
   for friars, 
   not for nuns, 
and therefore the rule printed 
   in this volume, 
          as it was taken from the book 
             which Don Vicente had 
          from the monastery
             of the venerable Maria of Jesus 
          in Alcala de Henares, 
  is an adaptation of the rule
     of the friars 
      to the condition of nuns. 
The compiler of it 
   changed the word ' triars ' into ' nuns,'
and, making the necessary changes
   in the text fashioned the rule
 to the use of the Carmelite nuns. 
The preface, however, has not been changed, 
and the rule is addressed still 
   to Brocardo  and the friars, 
while the first paragraph speaks of nuns.
It is probably an oversight
  - that Brocardo is mentioned again in 15, 
- that the paragraph remains unchanged,
- the words 'office of prior '
    not being altered into 'office of prioress.'
The Constitutions are frequently referred to
   by the Saint
        in the Book of the Foundations and
        in her letters; 
    even on her deathbed 
       she begs her children 
          to observe them carefully. 
They must have been written 
  soon after she began to live 
    in her new house in Avila, 
for the nuns in Avila were governed by them,
  as we learn from her in her account 
of the foundation of her second monastery,
   which was Medina del Campo. 
She was directed by our Lord on one occasion
  to take the rule and constitutions with her, 
had before that urged them 
  as a difficulty not to be overcome, 
when her triend Doha Luisa de la Cerda 
  seems to have proposed something to her 
which she would not sanction nor allow.


            The Constitutions 
The Constitutions 
   printed in this volume,
 were obtained 
   by Don Vicente de la Fuente 
 from the monastery of the Picture 
   in Alcala de Henares, 
and are said to have been given 
  by the General of the order in 1568; 
but that is clearly not true in the letter. 
In the first place 
   the Saint in 1567 speaks ot the constitutions 
         as being then in force in Avila, 
in the second place 
    the general of Carmel had no jurisdiction 
        over the monastery of the venerable
     Maria of Jesus in Alcala de Henares. 
S. Teresa went in November 1567 
   to that monastery, 
and gave it her own constitutions, 
   which, no doubt, she had shown 
to the general when he visited her in Avila
   in April of that year.
The general, also, approved of them,
 and ordered them to be toUowed 
    in subsequent foundations 
for he had no jurisdiction then 
    over that of S. Joseph's at Avila 
which was subject 
   to the Bishop of the diocese, 
   Don Alvaro de Mendoza. 
Perhaps the Venerable Maria of Jesus 
  adopted the constitutions in 1567, 
when the Saint was there.
The constitutions of that monastery 
  were approved of by the Archduke Albert, 
       Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo, 
   ordered by him to be observed 
       under the penalties imposed by them, 
   being, as he says, 
    ' the very constitutions
      which the Mother Teresa of Jesus,
     founder of the said order 
          of barefooted Carmelites, 
      made in her lifetime 
      for the government of the same.'
Don Vicente 
    - has not been able to find 
          the original MS
      of the Saint's Constitutions
   - has therefore printed those 
          of the Monastery of Alcala
      about the genuineness of  which 
         there can be no reasonable doubt.
'The Visitation of the Nunneries' ,
'The Visitation of the Nunneries' ,
  the manuscript of which
is at the Escorial
   has been reproduced in photo-lithography
by Don Francisco Herrero-Bayona,     
   Valladolid, 1883. 
It appears to have been written 
   in August or September 1576
at the request of Father Jerome Gratian, 
  then Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites
 by the authority of the Nuncio.
The Relation of the Foundation 
   of the convent of Granada 
by Ven. Anne of Jesus 
is printed in 
   Obras de Santa Teresa de Jesus 
      edited by Don Vicente de la Fuente,
      1881, t. vi, 113, sqq. 
In translating it,
we had the assistance 
  of the Benedictine nuns of Stanbrook, 

        The Maxims of S. Teresa
The Maxims of S. Teresa, 
   which will be found
 in the first edition of Mr Lewis' translation 
   of the Book of Foundations, p. 347,
have been transferred
   to another volume  of her works 
as they belong to her devotional 
  rather than to her historical writings."

         End of  an excerpt
       from the Introduction 
                 to the 
    Book of the Foundations     

      (regarding information 
       of the various versions
        of this book and 
       the other writings 
         that are often included 
       with "The Foundations" ) 

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